Secondary menu

Elections and Registration in Afghanistan (ERA) Project


Civic Education in Afghanistan
ERA Topical Report #10


Barbara Reinhardus
March 31, 2003

1. Introduction

This report was written in the very early days of planning for the constitutional and electoral process, a time when responsible players were just beginning to build their structures and recruit their staffs, and civil society groups were beginning to consider the degree of their participation. In recent weeks, the Constitutional Commission and its partners have been preparing printed materials and an implementation plan for public education and consultation. Their program is ambitious, and the commissioners are working under the constraints of a short timeframe and insufficient human and financial resources. Although the Constitutional Commissions' mandate is the most pressing, the Election Commissioners, once they are appointed, will quickly experience the same sense of urgency; in the meantime, a UNAMA Electoral Team has started the preliminary planning.

This paper is an attempt to place the various voter and civic education activities into a conceptual and practical framework to guide us as we develop our plans, in our various capacities. It also provides some background information and a strong recommendation that a field assessment should be carried out as soon as possible to collect the information required to, first, educate the leaders of Afghan society about the constitutional and electoral process and, secondly, to reach out to people at the grassroots level. Parts of the paper concerning public education for the Constitution have already been shared with the Constitutional Commission's Secretariat and civil society groups. In fact, a much clearer picture of Afghan Civic Society emerged through the process of participating in their committee on the constitution. Several weeks ago, the UNAMA Voter Education Expert, Jorge Guzman, arrived in Kabul. He has joined our civil society coordination meetings and has expressed interest in creating a coordinated and collaborative civic education effort.

This paper is not an official document and carries no weight other than its usefulness to anyone involved in the delivery of civic education to the people of Afghanistan.

2. The Loya Jirga and Elections in Afghanistan

The first democratic elections in Afghanistan took place in 1965 under a new Constitution, which had been drafted by a Constitutional Commission and seriously debated and ratified by a grand council of tribal elders called a Loya Jirga. The "Loya Jirga," a traditional and uniquely Afghan institution, had been used for centuries to settle affairs of the nation, confirm monarchs or, in some cases, rally people behind a cause. Other than the 1965 election and the second and last election in 1969, the Loya Jirga has been the closest form of popular representation in Afghanistan.

The elections of 1965 and 1969 were characterized by extremely low turnouts and a distinct lack of interest in the new Constitution and "New Democracy," particularly among rural dwellers. A distrust of government officials hampered the registration process, and few women outside the larger centers registered or voted. Furthermore, Afghans generally responded to the concept of the secret ballot with suspicion since voting in private was a deviation from the open system practiced at council meetings where delegates indicated their preference by raising their hands, or rifles.

The most recent meeting of tribal elders was the "Emergency Loya Jirga" held in June 2002, at which more than 1,500 delegates elected the transitional government of President Karzai. The next Loya Jirga is scheduled for October of this year to ratify a new constitution currently being drafted by a Constitutional Commission. Under the Bonn Agreement, a fully representative government will "be elected through free and fair elections held no later than two years from the date of the convening of the Emergency Loya Jirga," in June 2004.

The procedures of the 2002 Emergency Loya Jirga attempted to create a model that embraced traditional selection, popular representation and central government prerogative. The rural/urban balance was created by allowing at least one representative from each administrative district; ethnic balance by relying upon geographic concentrations; gender balance by reserving 160 appointed seats for women; and social-culture balance by providing seats for religious figures, refugees, nomads and traders.1 The Emergency Loya Jirga process included both direct and indirect voting, in three phases: district, regional and national. At the regional and national levels, voting was conducted by secret ballot; however, at the first or district level, electors were chosen by consensus in a public meeting.

When the election takes place in Afghanistan in 2004, it will have been 33 years since the last election. Those years have been characterized by chronic instability and intense conflict, the legacy of which is millions dead, wounded or displaced, a large refugee population, an economy and infrastructure in ruins and an inflammation of ethnic divisions. In this insecure and damaged environment the government of Afghanistan must appoint an Election Commission, pass an election law, produce a Constitution that will meet both international standards and the approval of the Loya Jirga, register seven to nine million voters, including women, and convince sufficient numbers of citizens to turn out for the vote in an election that international observers deem to be free and fair.

3. Information Campaigns In Afghanistan

In the post-Taliban years, two public education campaigns have been conducted to promote awareness of events that were of significance both nationally and internationally. As we prepare civic and voter education programs to promote understanding and support for a new constitution and electoral process, it may be helpful to review the methods, obstacles and successes of those campaigns.

3.1 The Currency Exchange Project

On October 7, 2002, the Central Bank of Afghanistan began replacing old currency with new banknotes, first in the capital city Kabul, and later in other major centers throughout the country. For the next three months, old money was collected and new money distributed, in a country without a banking system, proper roads or security.

Prior to the currency exchange project, there had been at least three different currencies coexisting: one currency printed by the former government of Burhanuddin Rabbani and then used by the Taliban; another produced while the Rabbani government was in exile; and a third printed by Abdul Rashid Dostum, a northern warlord. After years of civil war, the currency exchange project was seen, internationally and nationally, as an important test of the new government's ability not only to execute an ambitious logistics exercise but also to win and keep the cooperation of potentially hostile local strongmen.

The Afghanistan Central Bank designed a Public Education Campaign to:

The Public Awareness Campaign began in September 2002 with a media launch and speech by President Karzai in which he introduced the new currency. A Question & Answer information sheet was prepared and distributed to journalists and during the following weeks, and throughout the exchange period senior bank officials gave interviews to the national and international media. The IMF and the Special Representative to Afghanistan of the UN Secretary General issued press statements in support of the new currency. At critical stages during the process, the Governor of the Central Bank held press conferences to provide information and respond to problems.

Three sets of posters were produced during the campaign:

When the deadline was extended by one month, 20,000 illustrated information pamphlets were distributed to local government officials, mosques, newspapers, radio and television stations and NGOs, mostly outside Kabul.

Throughout the campaign, radio skits, announcements and musical jingles were written, produced and broadcast by Radio Afghanistan. Copies of tapes were distributed to international and provincial stations and played on cassette players in market places, schools and community centers.

The backbone of the currency exchange awareness campaign was the team of 50 promotion officers, selected by the Central Bank and trained and managed by the Public Education Adviser. Twelve promotion officers worked in Kabul and the surrounding provinces and 16 in the regions centered on Jalalabad, Gardez, Kandahar, Herat, Mozar-e-Sharif and Kunduz. During a two-and-a-half-month period (with one return visit to Kabul), they covered over four-fifths of the districts in the country, informing governors, district chiefs, mullahs and villagers about the currency exchange, playing audio tapes, and delivering posters and printed materials. (Only two of the 30 promotional officers were women and both of them were based in Kabul, although the Governor of the Central Bank appointed 20 female bank employees to work in the capital for a one-month period, visiting government offices, schools and the university.)

Unlike the information campaigns for the Emergency Loya Jirga and the upcoming Constitutional Consultation, Voter Registration and Election, the message of the currency exchange program was relatively simple. The campaign concentrated on a specific topic, over a short period of time and strove to reach out and touch a broad and diverse population in the most direct, clear and effective way.

As is the case in most campaigns, this one depended on electronic media, printed materials and educators (in this case, promotion officers). Although radio is considered to be the most efficient method of communication in Afghanistan, electricity is not available to most Afghans and batteries are not always affordable (although gathering around a radio is a common practice). Distribution of printed materials outside the main centers is a significant challenge for any operation in Afghanistan; for a program with a small budget ($55,000) and few resources, the challenge was formidable. And the job of promotion officers, recruited in Kabul and traveling in remote areas, often controlled by warlords and "commanders," was fraught with discomfort, anxiety and potential danger.

As the Currency Campaign illustrated, getting information to people in remote villages to encourage and facilitate their participation in an activity is enormously difficult. Telecommunication in Afghanistan is expensive, unreliable and in many parts of the country, impossible. Affordable travel is arduous and often dangerous, and fighting continues in certain regions. In some provinces, persons of a different ethnic background and language group are threatened and intimidated, and in many areas local officials are suspicious of and sometimes hostile toward any person who in their view represents the national government.

Lessons Learned:

With hindsight, a larger budget and more planning time, the Public Education Adviser of the Currency Exchange Campaign would make the following changes:

3.2 The Emergency Loya Jirga (2001)

The Loya Jirga Commission's Public Information Campaign

Nader Nadery, the spokesperson for the Loya Jirga Commission, was responsible for the Commission's Public Information Campaign. A deputy, three journalists, one translator, a computer operator and eight liaison persons in the field assisted Mr. Nadery. (During the final two months, a second person was added to each field office). The following materials and programs were used during the Information Campaign:

Newsletters

Pamphlets Text and illustrations

Banners

First Phase: Variety of messages to promote the importance of the Loya Jirga to the country.

Second Phase: Messages to promote Loya Jirga as means to bring about unity and reconciliation

Number: Approximately 100 for each province

Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif (500)

Kabul (800)

Location: On busy roads, marketplaces, mosques, public gathering places

Newspapers and Magazines

Radio

Mobile Cinema
In cooperation with Afghan Film, the Afghan National Institute for Cinema, UNAMA and the Loya Jirga Commission, AINA produced a film to promote the peace and reconciliation process and the Loya Jirga. Nine mobile units left Kabul on May 12 to tour the nine regions of Afghanistan for a period of six weeks. The films were shown on a 15 square meter screen with more that 300 projections to 400,000 people.2

The Media Support Project

In his report, John Butt, lead consultant for Media Support, states that the involvement and collaboration of Radio Afghanistan was crucial to the success of the Loya Jirga Radio Project; however, he also explains how the ongoing tussle for power in Radio Afghanistan complicated his work.3 He recommends that agreements with the Minister of Information and Culture and the Head of Radio and Television Afghanistan be worked out well in advance of the start of an information campaign.

Reaching out to Villagers

A criticism of the Loya Jirga public information strategy is worth noting as we begin our plan for reaching villagers in the more remote parts of the country.

The public information strategy, and indeed the indirect election strategy as a whole, seems based on an overly idealized view of Afghan village life and institutions. The former relies primarily on a single district volunteer, who is to spread information by work of mouth, through mosques, bazaars, etc, to all eligible residents. It is enough to expect this lone volunteer to disseminate the basic message about where and when the first stage selection of electors will take place, let alone actually to communicate the unfamiliar election rules and the purpose and format of the Loya Jirga itself.4

4. Civic and Voter Education

Civic education is often defined as an interactive and continuous process aimed at creating an environment where the values of democracy are understood and acted upon by the population. As stated in an international delegation report, "Such an environment is not something that simply emerges. It is the consequence of actions by people in leadership positions."5

A comprehensive Civic Education Program encompasses both public understanding of key concepts of governance in a democratic system and the basic information that every voter must have in order to arrive prepared at the voting station and vote. At its best, a civic education program has a long-term focus and commitment and eventually becomes a part of the school curriculum and an integral component of a citizen's understanding of how and why his/her democracy functions, and hopefully, flourishes.

Voter education is an essential feature of an Election Commission's mandate because it takes place to assist the election administration in its task of delivering free, fair, transparent and accessible elections by developing public understanding of the election management process and the conditions required to ensure free and fair elections.

For Afghanistan, the delivery of an effective civic education program will depend on the efforts and cooperation of many partners, including the Constitutional Commission, the Election Commission, UNAMA, NGOs, professional associations, media groups and international organizations and donors. An effective program will also require an understanding of the social, physical and political environment in which it is to be delivered and the needs and sensitivities of the people it most wants to reach.

4.1 Timeline

Under the Bonn Agreement, three major projects must be designed, organized and implemented within the next 14 months: the drafting and ratification of a Constitution, the registration of the voting population, and the conduct of elections. The constitutional process will run from now until October 2003; voter registration from August 2003 until March 2004; and the election is scheduled for June 2004.

This timeline is short. In any environment, the intellectual and logistical challenges inherent in carrying out the tasks outlined in the Bonn Agreement would be daunting. For reasons of infrastructure, history, culture, security and resources, the challenge for Afghanistan is enormous. To many Afghans, the imposition of this short timeline for the achievement of such important and difficult tasks is unrealistic and even cruel. An Afghan UNIFEM program officer talked about the terrible damage that the past decades of war and upheaval have inflicted on the Afghan psyche. She suggested that the people of Afghanistan need five years of psychotherapy before they will be in any shape to properly take on the challenges of constitutions and elections. However the Bonn Agreement allows very little time for the mending of hearts, minds and infrastructures, so a civic education campaign which supports the activities of the timeline must work with the realities of Afghanistan while respecting the vulnerabilities and mores of its people.

An important first objective of a civic education program is to explain the Bonn timeline to Afghans, as well as the steps in the process. Discussions with provincial governments, community and religious leaders and NGOs have revealed a large knowledge gap about the practical applications of the Bonn Agreement. Senior officials in Kandahar thought the October Loya Jirga would select the next government, not ratify a constitution, and few officials or leaders understood that all qualified citizens, including women, would be encouraged to register and vote in direct elections to be held next year.

Community leaders and ordinary citizens are expressing a strong need for information. It will take the efforts of all civic education partners to give Afghans the information they want, in a manner that is meaningful, and within a sufficient period of time to allow them the opportunity to absorb, discuss and act.

4.2 Partners

The various players in the civic education process are just beginning to set up the structures required to organize and deliver programs. The Constitutional Commission plans to conduct a public education campaign with the help of civil society and to consult the citizens of Afghanistan on their views concerning the constitution, prior to releasing a draft in August. The Commission has established a Secretariat and is currently recruiting civic education specialists.

To date, the Transitional Government has not appointed an Electoral Commission to manage the registration and election process. In the absence of counterparts, UNAMA has started that work. Annex 111 of the Bonn Agreement requests the United Nations "to conduct as soon as possible a registration of voters in advance of the general elections." In a letter to the Secretary General of the United Nations, President Karzai requested that "UNAMA be entrusted with the mission to help prepare and organize the electoral process and to coordinate international electoral assistance."

It is anticipated that many members of civil society will wish to participate in the civic education process and some of these groups are currently seeking donor support for their programs. One such group is the Afghan Civil Society Forum (Swiss Peace), a NGO that along with the International Human Rights Law Group initiated the coordination of activities of civil society organizations and media groups on the constitution. (See Appendix 1 for the list of participants.)

The International Foundation of Election Systems (IFES), in partnership with UNAMA, plans to begin a field assessment project in April to consult Afghans on their views about democracy and governance and the best ways to encourage the participation of citizens, including women. An ambitious civic education program designed to reach as many people as possible will follow the assessment.

5. Long Term Objectives

For the purpose of this paper, the long-term objectives of the voter and civic education project should be:

To raise the level of knowledge of voters in:

To increase national consensus and respect for the rule of law,

To ensure sustainable voter and civic education through a comprehensive, continuous and strategic approach which would particularly target children and young people through schools, the university and the electronic media.

6. Immediate Objectives

There are a number of immediate objectives for Afghan voter and civic education programs, the scope of which is to provide voter information, voter education and civic education to all interest groups in Afghanistan.

6.1     Increasing the understanding of the constitutional and democratic process and the timeline for implementing the Bonn Agreement. Promoting the spirit of reconciliation, peace and tolerance. Promoting the understanding of the fundamental elements of a constitution and the steps involved in creating a constitution for Afghanistan. Encouraging participation in the process through the mechanisms instituted by the Constitutional Commission. Encouraging discussion and debate of key issues.
     
6.2   Ensuring maximum participation of the electorate in the registration process by providing information to voters about registration procedures and by promoting understanding of the requirement of registering in order to vote.
     
6.3   Familiarizing the citizens of Afghanistan with the main features of the new Constitution. Promoting understanding of the guiding principles, system of government and rule of law.
     
6.4   Promoting maximum participation of the electorate in the election process by providing information about voting procedures and emphasizing the importance of every vote in a democratic election. Building trust and respect for democracy and the election process. Encouraging interaction among voters, candidates and political parties. Promoting the democratic ideas of tolerance, peaceful political activity and acceptance of election results.

To achieve these objectives, the above-mentioned immediate objectives could be divided into 4 Units and implemented by the Constitutional Commission, Electoral Commission/UNAMA, NGOs, the media and other grassroots organizations. The four Units are designed to carry out specific information and education activities as outlined below:

Unit 1 - Civic Education: Constitutional Process
Major responsibility for public information concerning the Constitution lies with the Constitutional Commission.

Increasing the understanding of the process and the timeline for implementing the Bonn Agreement:

Promoting the spirit of national reconciliation, peace and tolerance:

Promoting understanding of the elements of a constitution by describing:

Encouraging the participation of citizens in the creation of a constitution for Afghanistan by explaining:

Promoting discussion on the features to be included in the constitution by:

Unit 2 – Registration Period
Primary responsibility for this unit lies with the Electoral Commission.

Promoting maximum participation of voters in the registration process by:

Unit 3 – Civic Education: Post Constitution
Sensitizing citizens on the new Constitution and how the constitution will affect them and their government:

Sensitizing voters, political parties and other players in the election process on the meaning of democratic principles and procedures:

Unit 4 – Election campaign period
Primary responsibility for this unit lies with the Electoral Commission.

Providing voting-specific information to the voters, which will increase voters' understanding of the voting process and encourage participation and reconciliation. This will include information on:

7. Target Populations

In order to ensure the provision of effective civic education, it is important to develop a profile of citizens/voters in Afghanistan, which will enable the Election Commission and other organizations to develop messages and design materials that bear in mind:

7.1 Adult Men

The number one target group for civic education in Afghanistan is adult males because, to state the obvious, this group holds the monopoly on power at every level of society. Although a high percentage of Afghan men do not read or write, they have a sophisticated understanding of, and strong interest in, political decision-making and debate. Travel to the regions reveals a strong desire for information and an admission from men, including those in positions of authority, that they are uninformed and even confused about the political process unfolding in Afghanistan.

For civic education purposes, the adult male population should be divided into at least two groups, and appropriate materials and approaches should be developed for each group. For example, on the issue of the constitution, educational materials could be designed for presentation at workshops for community, religious and government leaders, educators and NGOs. Other than workshops and shuras, this target group could be reached through newspapers, magazines and information programming on radio and television.

The second target group would include men in general and local leaders in particular. It is hoped that the various community and group leaders who attend the workshops could pass on civic education information and messages to members of their groups through shuras and classes. (The amount of coordination and control over this part of the process will depend on the structures that organizations such as the Commissions, UNAMA and NGOs can put into place.) To help facilitate these activities, printed materials should be developed carrying clear, straightforward messages with a high visual component—pamphlets, posters, etc. This larger target group could also be informed about the constitution through radio dramas and announcements as well as mobile cinema and interactive theatre.

The key to gaining the cooperation and endorsement of Afghan men is to consult them on the content of messages and the implementation of programs. During a visit to Kandahar and Parwin, senior mullahs, members of the Emergency Loya Jirga and community leaders all expressed a willingness to assist with civic education both in the development of materials sensitive to cultural and religious traditions and the dissemination of messages to their constitutions.

7.2 Women

Afghanistan is a deeply conservative and patriarchal society, and although a small number of professional women in Kabul have some control over their lives, the vast majority of Afghan women have little freedom to make decisions without the permission of male family members. Consequently, an effective information campaign that aims to open the door to the fuller participation of women in the democratic process must first win the support of key men who in turn will work to overcome the resistance of the larger male community.

The second entry point to the defined spaces in which Afghan women live is through those women who have exhibited leadership qualities and earned the respect of women and men. These influential women range from female members of the Emergency Loya Jirga and professionals such as doctors and lawyers, to community activists and civil society workers. Their numbers are most noticeable in Kabul; however, gender experts believe that such women are living and operating in most parts of the country, although often quietly and sometimes covertly.

Public information in Afghanistan (outside the domestic and health sphere) is generally directed to the adult male population. Even as recently as the Currency Exchange Program (October 2002-January 2003), the initial radio scripts did not include female characters and the proposed public education plan defined the primary audience as adult males, with no reference to women. During the early planning stage of the Currency Exchange Campaign, the Task Force did not anticipate the participation of women in the process, assuming that a male family member would take responsibility for the exchange of money. To the Task Force, this approach mirrored an accepted cultural practice; however, the eventual realization that it did not accommodate the many widows who do not have close male relatives caused a change in approach.

Although Afghanistan has a large number of players in gender development, at this time there is no coordinated plan to increase the participation of women in the electoral process. The first huge stumbling block will be the registration of women for voting. Since registration and voting are individual, private and direct activities, they cannot be delegated to others; consequently, during the exercising of these rights, women will have the same power as men. To make the issue even more controversial, registration is a procedure that often requires the photographing of all registrants, including women. In Afghan society, there are very strict rules around who can photograph and who can see the photographs of women.

During discussions with religious and community leaders in Kandahar and Parwan, men initially questioned the participation of women in the electoral process because in their view, women are uneducated and uninterested in such matters, although they did allow that with civic education (and the advice of the male members of their families), participation was possible although problematic. To the Kandahar leaders however, the idea of photographing women (even if the photographs were taken by another woman and given only to the woman herself) was met with complete rejection.

In a culture where women have such limited access to the world outside their family compound, NGOs have learned to adapt their methods to what the community will tolerate. Civic educators should follow their example. In some areas, women are permitted to attend all-women classes, if close to home and if the project belongs to the traditional domain of women. In other areas, mobile units have been established to allow a 'sewing circle' to bring materials to a family compound and then pickup the finished product. Occasionally, families with less restrictive views on women's role allow community meetings and education exchanges to take place within their homes. The conditions for women in post-Taliban Afghanistan range from progressive and hopeful to archaic and depressing. Girls are returning to school in huge numbers but it is the rare woman who has the rights or status of an adult male. Consequently, in some parts of the country the registration of women will be allowed and even encouraged; in other parts, few women's names will be recorded on the voters list. The full participation of women will not occur in this election; however, an effective and sensitive civic education program can bring the reality of that full participation closer.

7.3 Other Target Groups

Other target groups for voter and civic education programs are nomads, internally displaced persons and disabled persons. Please refer to Kerry Heisner's papers on Voter Registration dated February and March 2003 for a review of these groups as well as well as the participation of women.

8. Logistical and Security Challenges

Anyone who has traveled by road in Afghanistan will attest to its extreme difficulty, discomfort and inconvenience. Road construction projects are underway, but it will be years before travel between major centers can be managed with any kind of ease. Away from the main highways, the roads are often nothing more than trails or footpaths, marked by erosion, war and total lack of repair. Thousands of villages are tucked into the sides of mountains or in valleys reached only by perilous movement, and when the snow melts, parts of the country turn into fields of mud. Consequently, the first method of choice for public education in Afghanistan is invariably radio but since people cannot register or vote by radio, travel to all parts of the country will be mandatory during the electoral process. As much as possible, the civic and voter educators should precede the registration and voting teams; therefore, the method of travel to remote parts will become a preoccupation for election and civic education organizers.

Outside I.S.A.F.-protected-Kabul, security issues are of great concern to people living in Afghanistan. To them, the expectation that free and fair elections can be conducted in regions where warlords, commanders and militia operate at will seems naïve and somewhat ludicrous. As we develop travel plans for civic educators (as well as registration and election personnel), the issue of their safety and freedom to operate will require our serious attention. The concern becomes even more acute when women are added to the civic education and election teams because it is believed by many that they could be under greater threat than men, in the short and long term.

A further constraint for the conduct of civic education is the anxiety expressed by NGOs operating in militia-controlled areas. Interviews with NGOs reveal that many local organizations will not participate in any activity that could provoke the ire of local armed men. In the view of these NGOs, elections and their associated activities will not be welcomed by many commanders; consequently, people associated with elections could be at risk.

9. Civil Society

Although it was the original intent of this paper to analyze the capacity of NGOs in the regions to deliver civic education, the task was greater than the time available and will become part of the Assessment Project. Three of the largest NGOs in the country are participating in the civic education coordination meetings for the Constitution – CHA, AREA and CoAR. It is likely that these three, as well as other NGOs, will be partnered with the Afghan Civil Society Forum (Swiss Peace) in their bid to conduct civic education on the constitution in all 32 provinces. Since Swiss Peace has incorporated an evaluation component into their proposal, they should be well equipped to report on capacity and dependability at the close of their project.

The following are some observations on civil society in Afghanistan:

The Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Relief (ACBAR) lists in its directory (February 2003) 126 International NGOs, 198 Afghan NGOs, 18 NGOs working for women and 14 working for children. Very few of these NGOs specialize in the areas of governance, democracy or political development. Not all NGOS, including the larger ones, are listed in the ACBAR directory. ACBAR will offer an appraisal on the experience and capacity of member NGOs.

The Afghanistan Information Management System (AIMS) maps the activities of NGOs throughout the country. According to AIMS, the national NGOs with the largest number of projects are:

CHA – Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (422 Projects)
AREA – Agency for Rehabilitation and Energy Conservation in Afghanistan (131 Projects)
ADA – Afghan Development Association (122 Projects)
CoAR – Coordination of Afghan Relief (90 Projects)
ACS – Afghans for Civil Society (7 Projects)

National NGOS and Civic Education
In a recent update, eight national NGOs were classified as being engaged in activities that could be related to civic education, although these same NGOs may be involved in many other types of projects.

Governance and Civil Society
ACS – Afghans for Civil Society (one project in Kandahar)
AREA – (3 projects)
RDO - Rehabilitation and Development Organization (one project)
SORVACH – Services Organization for Rehabilitation of Vocational, Agriculture, Construction and Health (one project)

Human Rights/Rule of Law
ADYR – Association of Defenders of Youth Rights (one project)
AREA – (7 projects)
RDO – (2 projects)

Culture and Media
ACLU – Afghan Construction and Logistics Unit (one project)
BCSA – Bamdad-e-Andish Association (one project)
CoAR – Coordination of Afghan Relief (one project)
International NGOs involved in similar pursuits include;
NCA – Norwegian Church Aid IFRC
Oxfam Save the Children
Terre des Hommes CARE

10. Media

Since the end of Taliban rule, there has been a boom of media activity in Afghanistan. Writers, producers and technicians are returning home from Peshawar, Pakistan. Radio Afghanistan's network is being rebuilt. Television is back on air in Kabul and some provincial towns, although usually not for long or with much of a range. Hundreds of publications are being printed daily, weekly or monthly, but only a few have circulation figures over one thousand. International NGOs are training journalists, technicians and filmmakers and helping to produce good quality material and programming for print, radio, film and video. And the International Community is supporting efforts to transform Radio-Television Afghanistan into a national public service broadcaster and to create community radio in Afghanistan. (See Afghanistan Electoral Network for an overview of organizations supporting media and a list of media contacts.)

10.1 Radio

Radio Kabul is the lead station of Radio Afghanistan's network. Donor funding from USAID provided Radio Afghanistan with satellite equipment and access to short-wave transmitters, extending the range to the entire country.

Provincial Stations
According to an Internews Report, 20 provincial stations are active, some with better production and broadcasting equipment than others; however, Radio Afghanistan has little control over programming in the provinces mainly because of the lack of a functioning telecommunications infrastructure. Except for the few tapes delivered from Kabul, most of the programming is local. (See Afghanistan Electoral Network.)

Independence of Provincial Radio Stations
In the provinces beyond Kabul, senior officials openly admit broadcasters are tightly controlled by regional leaders. Kandahar has a nightly program lasting two hours, but it is totally dominated by the activities of Governor Ghul Ahmed Sherzai. The finances of the station are run through an account controlled by Sherzai, according to local journalists.

In Mazar-e-Sharif, viewers are subjected to the daily activities of not one, but three competing local leaders—General Abdel Rashid Dostum, Ustad Atta and Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq—who film their meetings with international organizations and diplomats, them send the tapes to the local TV station, which duly broadcasts them.6

Afghan Independent Radio
A different type of radio will soon begin broadcasting in Kandahar. Afghans for Civil Society, an NGO founded in 1998 by Qayum Karzai, brother of President Karzai, has recently received licensing and funding to launch a radio station in that province (www.afghanpolicy.org).

BBC
The BBC World Service has acted as Afghanistan's unofficial national broadcaster for much of the past 25 years and continues to have a high profile. It broadcasts in Kabul 24 hours a day and to the rest of the country on short wave. Its soap opera New Home, New Life is immensely popular. It tells the stories of the lives of people in three rural villages (located in different parts of the country) and is produced in Dari and Pashto. Story lines are developed from focus groups and episodes are often closely based on experiences and attitudes revealed by participants.

BBC is currently preparing programming to explain issues concerning the constitution. The Swiss Government is funding the project.

Radio Free Afghanistan and Voice of America
Radio Free Afghanistan and Voice of America both broadcast in Dari and Pashto on FM in Kabul and on short wave to the rest of the country. Radio Free Afghanistan is the Afghan service of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and is particularly popular because of its high content of Afghan, Iranian and Indian music.

Radio Production
The production of civic education skits, dramas and announcements for broadcast on a variety of stations can be a complicated process. There are a number of talented writers, actors and producers at Radio Afghanistan; however, to engage their services, it is necessary to follow (and endure) bureaucratic procedures. Negotiations with Radio Afghanistan should begin very soon to allow for timely production and broadcasting of messages for the constitution and election period. A number of independent media groups are contemplating the development of a production capacity to facilitate the creation of good radio material for broadcast on provincial and international radio.

10.2 Publications
The number of newspapers in Afghanistan has increased dramatically. (See Afghanistan Electoral Network for a partial list of publications.)

10.3 Television
Television Kabul broadcasts 6 hours a day form 5 p.m. to 11 p.m. Six other cities have functioning television stations. (See Afghanistan Electoral Network.)

11. Field Assessment for Face-to-Face Public Education

Radio productions and printed materials are two effective and relatively easy methods for disseminating information. The value of face-to-face education is also high, although in a country like Afghanistan, the logistical and security obstacles to this approach are serious and the costs can be considerable. A sensible way of analyzing the effectiveness of a grassroots campaign is to conduct a field assessment to learn as much as possible about the local conditions and the availability and capacity of local educators.

The first step of the face-to-face campaign described in this paper is to identify key individuals and educate them (in a series of workshops) about the process, principles and procedures outlined in the various civic and voter education programs. If leaders of provincial and district governments, community organizations, mullahs, tribes and police attend workshops and are sensitized to democracy and rule of law, a major impediment to the success of the whole project will be overcome.

There is a second benefit to educating provincial and local leaders first. Some of these individuals will be willing and able to pass on information to members of their own group. In the case of mullahs and members of the Emergency Loya Jirga, their help could be very beneficial. The power of education via the cascade system could work well in a country such as Afghanistan where loyalty and connection to family, tribe, ethnic group and village are very strong. Our success will depend upon the persuasiveness of our messages and the willingness of leading figures to endorse and communicate them.

It is common practice to divide the country into seven regions and to consider Kabul, a region unto itself.

Region Main Centre Provinces     
North East Kunduz Kunduz Baghlan  
    Takhar Badakhshan  
         
North Mazar-e-Sharif Balkh Samangan Sari Pul
    Faryab Jawzjan  
         
West Herat Herat Badghis Ghor
    Farah Nimroz  
         
South West Kandahar Kandahar Helman  
    Uruzgan Zabul  
         
South Ghazni Ghazni Paktika  
    Paktya Khost  
         
East Jalalabad Nangarhar Kunar  
    Laghman Nuristan  
       
Surrounding Kabul Kapisa Wardak Logar
    Parwan Bamyan  
Kabul        

The Research and Field Assessment schema on pages 24-26 outlines a plan to:

To reach its objectives, the plan would include:

  • A consultation process that reaches all influential players at the provincial level,

  • An effort to incorporate the views and sensitivities of influential players into the civic education program and materials,

  • A recognition of the regional differences that exist in Afghanistan and an awareness of these differences when developing strategies,

  • A commitment to implement a community development approach in the public education plan.

    The Inputs column of the schema lists the agencies and organizations that could provide background information on conditions, people and organizations. For the field assessment, the first point of contact in the regions would be the UNAMA Regional Office.

    The Recruitment and Training schema on pages 27 and 28 recommends the establishment of a core group of team leaders and trainers to oversee and conduct civic education in the provinces. After this team has been recruited and trained, they could be employed to assist with the implementation of one to all of the four units of civic education activities. Each region would be assigned one team leader, but the number of trainers would range from four to six according to the number of provinces in the region and/or the population and distances.

    12. Activities

    The civic/voter education plan proposes the following approaches in order to achieve the set objectives:

    • Engagement of regional educators/trainers to instruct and inform community leaders and community groups in all 32 provinces.
    • Preparation and distribution of written and visual materials (posters, pamphlets, banners, manuals and training materials for educators)
    • Drama productions and announcements for use on radio
    • Video productions for mobile cinema and television broadcast
    • Promotional material for educators/trainers (caps, bags)

    In relation to Unit 1 (Constitutional Period),the following activities would be undertaken:

    • Civic Education of Community Leaders and Community Groups
      • Preparation of a training manual, which would cover the following topics:
        1. The process and timeline for implementing the Bonn Agreement,
        2. National reconciliation, peace and tolerance,
        3. What is a Constitution and why it is important?
        4. Participation in the Constitutional Consultation,
        5. Deciding the features to be incorporated in the Constitution.
      • Identification of community leaders in each province representing provincial government, local (district) governments, religious leaders, NGOs, media, teachers, military personnel.
      • Civic education for community leaders. This activity would include:
        1. The recruitment of regional educators/trainers,
        2. Printing of manuals,
        3. Training of educators and monitoring personnel,
        4. Civic education field activities in 32 provinces and monitoring of evaluation activities.
      • Civic education of community groups. This activity would include education of community groups through a cascade system whereby the community leaders train members of their organizations and monitoring of the program.
    • A Radio Campaign for broad sensitization of voters about the Constitution:
      • Development of fictional characters in radio dramas to explore Constitutional and human rights issues such as the rule of law, i.e. a policeman applying the same fine to a local official who breaks the speed limit as to an ordinary citizen.
      • Interviews with experts, call-in radio shows.

    • Broad dissemination of printed material for the use of citizens. This would include preparation and dissemination of 2 sets of posters about the constitution, 60,000 depicting an illustrated timeline for the Bonn Agreement and another 60,000 promoting reconciliation, peace and good government.

    • The production of a video on reconciliation to be shown in towns and villages by mobile cinema teams and broadcast on television.

    In relation to Unit 2 the following activities would be undertaken:

    • Radio campaign aimed at inspiring voters to register, informing voters about registration procedures and motivating voters to check the lists after they are posted. This will include:
      • Preparation and production of radio skits and announcements to inspire voters,
      • Preparation and production of radio skits to sensitize men and women to the right of women to register,
      • Preparation of announcement on dates and times of registration and what to bring to the registration center. (Important to clearly emphasize that the dates will vary according to region.)
      • Preparation of a short radio drama on voters' responsibility to check voters' lists,
      • Radio interviews with Election Commissioners.
    • Broad dissemination of posters on voter registration. This includes:

      • 60,000 posters encouraging voters to register
      • 60,000 posters illustrating men and women registering
      • 20 posters for each of 5000 registration sites with space to write the date and time of registration for that village/site.
      • 20 posters for each of 5000 registration sites with space to write the date and time for inspection of voters' list.
    • Preparation and publishing of information for voters on registration procedures in local newspapers. This includes:

      • Information on what voters need to bring to registration centers, when and where to register, who can register,
      • Information related to inspection of voters' roll.
    • Preparation and distribution of promotional material on registration procedures:

      • Publishing of 500,000 leaflets on registration procedures,
      • Production of 5000 banners (for each registration site),
  • The production of a video on the right of women to register and vote to be shown in towns and villages by mobile cinema teams and broadcast on television.

    In relation to Unit 3, the following activities would be undertaken:

    • Civic Education of Community Leaders and Community Groups
        • Preparation of a training manual, which would sensitize citizens on the new constitution and how the constitution will affect them and their government:
          1. Rights, freedoms and responsibilities of citizens,
          2. Structure, roles and responsibilities of government,
          3. Structure of the judicial system
        • Sensitize voters, political parties and other players in the election process on the meaning of democratic principles, rules and procedures:
          1. The right of registered citizens including women, ethnic minorities, the displaced and disabled to vote and to participate in political campaigns,
          2. The right to fair and balanced media coverage of candidates and political parties,
          3. The right to vote freely and secretly,
          4. The importance of peaceful, fair and transparent election process,
          5. The allocation and assignment of seats in the new legislative assembly.
        • Identification of community leaders in each province representing provincial government, local (district) governments, religious leaders, NGOs, media, teachers, military personnel. (As in Unit 1)
        • Civic education for community leaders. This activity would include:
          1. recruiting regional educators/trainers,
          2. printing manuals,
          3. training educators and monitoring personnel,
          4. civic education field activities in 32 provinces and monitoring of evaluation activities. (As in Unit 1)
        • Civic education of community groups. This activity would include education of community groups through a cascade system whereby the community leaders train members of their organizations and monitoring of the program. (As in Unit 1)

      • A Radio Campaign for broad sensitization of voters about the main features of the new Constitution and the meaning of democratic principles, rules and procedures through radio dramas, announcements and interviews. (See video below.)

      • Broad dissemination of printed material for the use of citizens. This would include preparation and dissemination of 2 sets of posters, 60,000 with a human rights message and 60,000 with a message of peaceful elections.

      • The production of a video on the importance of voting, the right of candidates to campaign freely, the right of all qualified citizens to vote secretly and without intimidation, and the accountability of a successful candidate to his/her constituents.

      In relation to Unit 4, the following activities would be undertaken:

    • Radio campaigns aimed at increasing the understanding of the voting process and encouraging participation and reconciliation. This would include:

      • Preparation and production of radio dramas on the secrecy of the ballot, the reasons for voting, respect for opposing views and acceptance of election results,
      • Radio interview with Election Commissioners,
      • Preparation and broadcasting of radio announcements on dates to vote, when and where to vote and what to bring.
    • Broad dissemination of posters on voting process. This would include:

      • 60,000 posters with step-to-step explanation of the voting process
      • 60,000 posters to remind voters of election date, times and polling locations
    • Preparation and publishing of information for voters on voting procedures in local newspapers and to inform voters of the election date.



    • Dissemination of promotional material on the voting process:

      • Publishing of 500,000 leaflets on voting process
      • Production and display of 5000 banners
      • Production and display of 50 billboards

      13. Implementation

      The ideas proposed in this paper are intended to give voter and civic education planners a framework in which to consider our work. Successfully implementing this proposal or some version of this framework will require human and financial resources and probably more time than the Bonn calendar allows. Successful implementation also requires cooperation among the various players and coordination of the activities, in order to capitalize on assets and move the agenda as quickly as possible. Signs of such cooperation and coordination are already evident in the work being done by the Constitutional Commission, UNAMA, Asia Foundation, International Human Rights Law Group, Swiss Peace and other NGOs, perhaps a very good omen for the challenge ahead.

      Research and Field Assessment

      Immediate Objectives

      Activities

      Tasks

      Inputs

      Outputs

      Increasing the understanding of the conditions that exist in the regions of Afghanistan in order to design an affective civic education campaign.

      North East
      Kunduz, Baghlan, Takhar, Badaskshan

      North
      Balkh, Samangan, Sari Pul, Faryab, Jawzjan

      South West
      Kandahar, Helmand, Uruzgan, Zabul

      South
      Ghazni, Paktika, Paktya, Khost

      East
      Nangar, Nuristan

      1.1 To conduct research on the geographic, political and social conditions in each province.

      1.1.1 Development of a profile of the physical, political, and social characteristics of the provinces in each of the seven regions.

      a) Topography
      b) Roads
      c) People

      - Population
      - Ethnic groups
      - Religions
      - Languages

      d) Districts
      e) Urban Centers
      f) Universities
      g) Media (local)
      h) Security Conditions

      1.1.2 Development of a profile of provincial governments, international, national and community organizations and marginalized groups.

      a) Government Officials
      b) UNAMA Personnel
      c) Religion Leaders
      d) Tribal Leaders
      e) Community, Professional and civil society groups.
      f) Emergency Loya Jirga members
      g) Police and militia
      i) University Teachers
      j) Internally Displaced persons
      k) Disabled Persons
      l) Nomads

      - Fee for Researchers

      - UN Security
      - AACA
      - AIMS
      - CSO
      - Ministry of Higher Education
      - IMPACS
      - Internews
      - Ministry of Information and Culture
      - Ministry of Communication
      - UNFPA
      - Habitat
      - Ministry of Interior
      - UNAMA
      - ACBAR
      - ANCB
      - UNHCR
      - NGOs
      - NDI
      - IRI
      - USAID/OTI
      - UNWFP-VAM Unit
      - Ministry of Martyrs and Disabled

      Comprehensive report on conditions in the provinces which could help or hinder the conduct of civic education.

      Surrounding Kabul
      Kapisa, Wardak, Logar, Parwan, Bamyan

      Kabul

      1.2 To conduct a field assessment in each region by:
      (1) Verifying the research.
      (2) Developing a list of government, religious and community leaders to invite to civic education workshops.
      (3) Consulting with Women's NGOs, organizations and women themselves.

      1.2.1 Visit regions and the provinces in each region.

      1.2.2 Meet with regional UNAMA office.

      1.2.3 Meet with government, religious and community leaders.

      1.2.4 Consult community leaders on content of civic education program and workshop.

      1.2.5 Consult community leaders on challenges of registration of women.

      1.2.6 Consult women's NGOs, women's organizations and women themselves to determine:
      a) NGO programs, capacity and coverage.
      b) Degree of freedom of movement and association women enjoy.
      c) Ways in which women organize themselves in their communities (entry points)
      d) Attitudes of women towards voter registration and civic education.
      e) Security threats directed at women.

      - IFES and partners to travel to regions

      - Costs of transportation, accommodation and food.

      - Draft civil education materials

      - UNAMA Regional

      office

      - Partner NGOs

      List of government, religious and community leaders to invite future civic education workshops.

       

       

       

       

       

      Strategy for increasing participation of women in region.

       

      1.3 To write a field assessment report and develop a grassroots civic education plan for each province.

      1.3.1 Development of a list of villages and urban communities to be targeted.

      1.3.2 Description of village and urban areas under the following topics.

      a) Characteristics of each location to

      indicate level of openness to civic education.

      c) Entry point to villages.

      d) Potential civil society partners or

      villages leaders to conduct civic education.

      e) Marginalized groups, i.e. nomads,

      internally displaced persons.

      f) Particular approach to women.

      8) Any threats or constraints.

       

      A plan of action for civic education based on field research and consultation with community leaders and urban and village dwellers.

      - Eight Regional Field Assessments.

      - Eight Regional Grassroots Civic Education Plans.

      Recruitment and Training of Civic Education Team Leaders and Trainers

      Immediate Objectives

      Activities

      Tasks

      Inputs

      Outputs

      1. Establish a core group of professional civic education trainers and team leaders to conduct and oversee civic education.

      Region, #/Trainers
      Northeast, 4
      North, 6
      West, 6
      Southwest, 4
      South, 4
      East, 4
      S.Kabul, 6
      Kabul, 4

      2. Assist with civic and voter education for:
      Unit 1: Constitutional process.
      Unit 2: Registration
      Unit3: Post Constitution
      Unit 4: Election

      1.1 To recruit and train 8 team leaders.

      1.1.1 Preparation of manual for regional team leaders to guide them on the recruitment and supervision of trainers and management of project.

      1.1.2 Preparation of training manual for civic education trainers.

      1.1.3 Recruitment of 8 team leaders.

       

      1.1.4 Training of 8 team leaders in Kabul.

      1.1.5 Training of Provincial Civic Education trainers in Kabul.

      - Recruitment of translator.

      - Illustrations and typesetting for training manuals.

       

      - Recruitment from Kabul or regions of 8 team leaders to manage civic education programs in provinces.

      - Fee for 8 team leaders for 3 weeks

      Training to cover:
      a) Field assessment report prepared for each region.( See Research and Field Assessment)
      b)Civic Education Plan of Action developed for each region.
      c) How to recruit educators?
      d) How to manage the Civic Education Project including monitoring and evaluation.

      - Training Costs to include, meals, accommodation, transportation (return trip to Kabul when required) supplies, stationary, training aids.

      Professional team leaders to supervise civil education process in Kabul and regions.

       

      1.2 To recruit and train civic education trainers.

      1.2.1 Recruitment of Provincial Civic Educations trainers in the regions by the team leaders.

      - Transportation (to and from regions and within regions), accommodation and food costs for team leaders for one week.

      - Return trip from regions to Kabul for 38 educators.

      - Training costs for educators for 3 days.

      - Cost for room rental,

      accommodation, meals, supplies, stationary, training aids.

      - Fees for trainers educators for one weeks.

      Professional Civil Education Trainers to instruct community leaders, NGOs government officials, religious leaders, police, political parties, educators.

      Civic Education Unit 1: Constitutional Process

      Immediate Objectives

      Activities

      Tasks

      Inputs

      Outputs

      1. Increasing the understanding of the process and timeline for implementing Bonn Agreement.

      2. Promoting the spirit of national reconciliation, peace and tolerance.

      3. Promoting understanding of the elements of a constitution.

      4. Encouraging the participation of citizens in the creation of a constitution for Afghanistan.

      5. Promoting discussions on the features to be included in the constitution.

      1.1 To conduct Civic Education for communityleaders in the 7 regions and in Kabul.

      (Unit 1: Stage1)

      1.1.1 Preparation of a civic education manual on "The Drafting of a New Constitution for Afghanistan".

      1.1.2 Civic Education Trainers instructed on Constitutional Process, manual and training aids.

      1.1.3 Civic Education Trainers conduct workshops on civic education for government and community leaders in 32 provinces for 5 weeks.

      1.1.4 Team leaders manage, monitor and evaluate civic education trainers activities for 5 weeks.

      1.1.5 Team leaders and trainers assess the capacity and willingness of community leaders to conduct civic education within their own groups.

      - Recruitment of consultant to assist in writing of civic education manual.

      - Recruitment of translator.

      - Illustrations, typesetting and printing of manuals.

      - Training materials.

      - Cost of return to Kabul

      - Cost of room rental, accommodation, meals, supplies, and stationary.

      - Cost of transportation in region, meals, accommodation for 5 weeks.

      - Cost for training aids for regions

      - Costs of return trip from Kabul to region.

      - Cost of transportation in region, meals, accommodation for 5 weeks

      - Regional Assessment.

      Sensitization of community leaders in each province - representatives of provincial & district governments, religious groups, tribal groups, NGOs, Emergency Loya Jirga, professional associations, political parties, military and police - on the drafting of the Constitution.

       

      1.2 To conduct a grassroots civic education campaign in urban centers and villages on the

      constitutional and electoral process, and national reconciliation

      (Unit 1: Stage 2)

      1.1.6 Team leaders and civic educators develop list of community leaders to conduct civic education at grassroots level.

      1.1.7 Debriefing of team leaders in Kabul for 2 days.

      1.2.1 Preparation of booklet (few words many illustrations) with information on:

      a) The Bonn Accord steps and timeline.

      b) Elements of a constitution and messages about peace, tolerance and national reconciliation.

      1.2.2 Team leaders and project manager review and finalize grassroots civic education plan

      1.2.3 Team leaders return to regions with revised plan, manuals, posters and training aids to supervise grassroots civic education.

      1.2.4 Civic Education Trainers begin civic education activities in village and urban communities according to plan.

      - List of community leaders to conduct civic education from field assessment.

      - Recruit consultants to write text in clear and simple language.

      - Recruit graphic artist to illustrate text.

      - Typesetting and printing of booklet.

      - Field Assessment Report

      - Grassroots Civic Education Plan.

      - Revised Civic Education Plan.

      - Manuals, posters, training aids.

      - Fee for 8 team leaders for 2 and ½ months.

      - Costs for return trip to region, travel within regions, accommodation and food.

      - Fee for 38 civic educators for 2 months.

      - Costs for travel within region, accommodation and food.

      List of community leaders to conduct civic education at grassroots level.

      Citizens from all 32 provinces sensitized about the constitution process and understating of the elements of a constitution.

      Revised grassroots Civic Education Plan.

       

      1.3 To carry out radio campaign for broad sensitization of citizens in areas such as:

      a) The role of the Constitutional Loya Jirga.

      b) The elements of a constitution.

      c) Spirit of peace tolerance and national reconciliation.

      1.4 To broadly disseminate printed materials.

      1.2.5 Partner NGOs and community groups begin civic education activities.

      1.2.6 Team leaders monitor & evaluate activities.

      1.2.7 Debriefing of team leaders and trainers in Kabul for 3 days.

      1.3.1 Conduct Radio interviews with commissioners, legal experts, community leaders.

      1.3.2 Conduct call-in radio shows.

      1.3.3 Broadcast skits and dramas in episodes.

      1.4.1 To prepare and broadly disseminate 2 sets of posters about the constitution, 60,000 depicting an illustration of

      timeline for Bonn Agreement and another 60,000 promoting reconciliation, peace and good government.

      1.4.2 To prepare and distribute 20,000 leaflets to community leaders in workshops for dissemination to literate persons within their communities.

      - Costs to be negotiated.

      - Cost of return flight to Kabul for civic education trainers.

      - Costs of room rental accommodation, food.

      - Recruitment of Production Company to prepare radio dramas and skits.

      - Purchase of Air Time for broadcast.

      - Dubbing of dramas and skits to be distributed to national and provincial radio stations and played on cassette recorders by civic educators.

      - Artwork, typesetting and printing of posters.

      - Artwork, typesetting and printing leaflets.

      Citizens made aware of constitutional process and its importance in bringing peace and security to Afghanistan.

      Posters placed in workplaces, community, centers, bazaars, schools, etc.

      Leaflets delivered to literate persons by community leaders who communicate messages to others.

       

      1.5 Through the use of mobile cinema, show films on reconciliation process in Afghanistan.

      1.5.1 Produce films to promote spirit of peace and tolerance.

      1.5.2 Prepare an itinerary of dates and locations for projections in regions.

      1.5.3 Publicize the mobile cinema projections.

      1.5.4 Make arrangements for film to be broadcast on

      Afghanistan Television and provincial stations.

      - Hire production company to write scripts, produce films, prepare itinerary, publicize projections and make arrangements for television broadcast.

      Citizens have better understanding of the importance of the reconciliation process.

      Civic Education Unit 2: Registration

      Immediate Objectives

      Activities

      Tasks

      Inputs

      Outputs

      Achieve satisfactory level of registered voters by

      a) Inspiring voters to register;

      b) Informing voters about the registration process.

      c) Motivating voters to check the voters list (and pick up registration cards, if applicable).

      2.1 To conduct radio campaigns aimed at

      - Inspiring voters to register

      - Informing voters how to know when registration teams will be in their district

      - Motivating voters to check the lists (and pick up registration cards).

      2.2 To broadly disseminate posters on voter registration

      2.1.1 Preparation and production of radio skits and announcement to inspire voters to register.

      2.1.2 Preparation and production of radio skits to sensitize men and women to the right of women to register.

      2.1.3 Preparation of announcement on dates and times of registration and what to bring to the registration center for broadcast on local stations.

      2.1.4 Preparation of a short radio drama on voter's responsibilities to check the voters lists for broadcast local stations.

      2.2.1 Prepare and disseminate 60,000 posters encouraging voters to register.

      2.2.2 Prepare and disseminate 60,000 posters illustrating men and women registering.

      2.2.3 Prepare and disseminate 20 posters for each of 5000 registration sites with space to write the date and time of registration for that village/site.

      - Hiring a production company to produce radio skits on tape.

      - Technician and recording

      - Air time

      - Hiring a production company to produce skits on tape

      - Air time

      - Production of 2 sets of 60,000 posters (illustration/photographer, typesetting and printing)

      - Production of 2 sets of 100,000 posters (illustration/photographer, typesetting and printing)

      Voters are motivated to register in large numbers, to check the voters list (and to pick up their registration cards).

      Voters encouraged to register to vote and are informed about registration procedures.

       

      2.3 Preparation and publishing of information for voters on registration procedures in the local newspapers.

      2.4 Preparation and publishing of promotional material on registration process.

      2.5 Through use of mobile cinema, show film on importance of men and women registering to vote.

      2.2.4 20 posters for each of 5000 registration sites with space to write the

      date and time for inspection of voters list

      2.3.1 Preparation and publishing of information for voters about registration (what to bring, when and where to register, who can register).

      2.4.1 Preparation and publishing of 500,000 leaflets on registration process

      2.4.2 Production of banners on registration process.

      2.5.1 Produce film to promote registration.

      2.5.2 Prepare an itinerary of dates and locations for projections in regions.

      2.5.3 Publicize the mobile cinema projections.

      2.5.4 Make arrangements for film to be broadcast on Afghanistan Television and local stations.

      Newspaper space

      - Illustration, typesetting and printing of leaflets.

      - Production of 5000 banners (1 per site)

      - Hire production company to write scripts, produce film, prepare itinerary, publicize projections and make arrangements for television broadcast.

      Voters encouraged and reminded about their obligation and to respect the voters roles.

      Voters sensitized about registration procedure.

      Citizens have better understanding of importance of all qualified adults to register.

      Civic Education Unit 3: Post Constitution

      Immediate Objectives

      Activities

      Tasks

      Inputs

      Outputs

      1. Sensitizing citizens on the new Constitution and how the Constitution will effect them and their government.

      2. Sensitizing voters, political parties and other players in the election process on the meaning of democratic principles and procedures.

      1.1 To conduct Civic Education for community leaders in the 7 regions and in Kabul.

      (Unit 3: Stage1)

      1.1 Timeline

      5 weeks

      1.1.1 Preparation of a civic education manual explaining features of the new constitution, democratic principles and procedures.

      1.1.2 Civic Education Trainers instructed on contents of manual.

      1.1.3 Civic Education Trainers conduct workshops on civic education for government and community leaders in 32 provinces for 5 weeks. (as identified during field assessment).

      1.1.4 Team leaders manage, monitor and evaluate civic education trainers activities for 5 weeks.

      1.1.5 Team leaders and trainers review the assessment of the capacity and willingness of community leaders to conduct civic education within their own groups.

      - Recruitment of consultant to assist in writing of civic education manual.

      - Recruitment of translator.

      - Illustrations, typesetting and printing of manuals.

      - Training materials.

      - Cost of return to Kabul

      - Cost of room rental, accommodation, meals, supplies, and stationery.

      - Cost of transportation in region, meals, accommodation for 5 weeks.

      - Cost for training aids for regions

      - Costs of return trip from Kabul to region.

      - Cost of transportation in region, meals, accommodation for 5 weeks

      - Regional Assessment Report.

      Sensitization of community leaders in each province - representatives of provincial & district governments, religious groups, tribal groups, NGOs, Emergency Loya Jirga, professional associations, political parties, military and police - on the new constitution and democratic principles and procedures.

       

      1.2 To conduct a grassroots civic education campaign in urban centers and villages on the new

      constitution and democratic principles.

      (Unit 3: Stage 2)

      1.2 Timeline

      2 ½ months

      1.1.6 Team leaders and civic educators finalize list of community leaders to conduct civic education at grassroots level.

      1.1.7 Debriefing of team leaders in Kabul for 2 days.

      1.2.1 Preparation of booklet (few words many illustrations) with information on:

      a) Rights, freedoms

      b) Principles of democracy and responsibilities of citizens.

      1.2.2 Team leaders and project manager review and finalize grassroots civic education plan.

      1.2.3 Team leaders return to regions with revised plan, manuals, posters and training aids to supervise grassroots civic education.

      1.2.4 Civic Education Trainers begin civic education activities in village and urban communities according to plan.

      - Recruit consultants to write text in clear and simple language.

      - Recruit graphic artist to illustrate text.

      - Typesetting and printing of booklet.

      - Field Assessment Report

      - Grassroots Civic Education Plan.

      - Revised Civic Education Plan.

      - Manuals, posters, training aids.

      - Fee for 8 team leaders for 2 and ½ months.

      - Costs for return trip to region, travel within regions, accommodation and food.

      - Fee for 38 civic educators for 2 months.

      - Costs for travel within region, accommodation and food.

      List of community leaders to conduct civic education at grassroots level.

      Citizens from all 32 provinces sensitized about the constitution process and understating of the elements of a constitution.

      Revised grassroots Civic Education Plan.

       

      1.3 To carry out radio campaign for broad sensitization of citizens in areas such as:

      a) Rights, freedoms and responsibilities.

      b) Importance of peaceful, fair and transparent elections

      c) Structure of government

      1.4 To broadly disseminate printed materials.

      1.2.5 Partner NGOs and community groups begin civic education activities.

      1.2.6 Team leaders monitor and evaluate activities.

      1.2.7 Debriefing of team leaders and trainers in Kabul for 3 days.

      1.3.1 Conduct Radio interviews with Election Commissioners, legal experts, community leaders.

      1.4.1 To prepare and broadly disseminate 2 sets of posters one with a human rights message and a second with a message about peaceful elections.

      1.4.2 To prepare and distribute 20,000 leaflets to community leaders in workshops for dissemination to literate persons within their communities.

      - Costs to be negotiated.

      - Cost of return flight to Kabul for civic education trainers.

      - Costs of room rental accommodation, food.

      - Recruitment of Production Company to prepare radio dramas and skits.

      - Purchase of Air Time for broadcast.

      - Dubbing of dramas and skits to be distributed to national and provincial radio stations and played on cassette recorders by civic educators.

      - Artwork, typesetting and printing for 2 sets of 60,000 posters.

      - Artwork, typesetting and printing leaflets.

      Citizens made aware of new constitution and democratic process.

      Posters placed in workplaces, community, centers, bazaars, schools, etc.

      Leaflets delivered to literate persons by community leaders who communicate messages to others.

       

      1.5 Through the use of mobile cinema, show film on importance of voting, right of candidates to campaign freely, right to vote in secret and importance of elected representatives' accountability.

      1.5.1 Produce films to promote spirit of peace and tolerance.

      1.5.2 Prepare an itinerary of dates and locations for projections in regions.

      1.5.3 Publicize the mobile cinema projections.

      1.5.4 Make arrangements for film to be broadcast on

      Afghanistan Television and provincial stations.

      - Hire production company to write scripts, produce films, prepare itinerary, publicize projections and make arrangements for television broadcast.

      Citizens have better understanding of democratic principles.

      Civic Education Unit 4: Election Campaign Period

      Immediate Objectives

      Activities

      Tasks

      Inputs

      Outputs

      Providing voting specific information to the voters, which will increase voters understanding of the voting process and encourage participation and reconciliation.

      4.1 To conduct radio campaign aimed at increasing the understanding of voting process and encouraging participation and reconciliation.

      4.1.1 Preparation and production of radio skits on the secrecy of the ballot, why voters should vote, respect for opposing views and acceptance of elections results.

      4.1.2 Conduct radio interviews with the Election Commissioners.

      4.1.3 Broadcast radio announcements on dates to vote, when and where to vote, what to bring.

      - Recruitment of a production company to produce radio skits and announcements.

      - Air time.

      - Recruitment of a media consultant.

      - Air time for announcements.

      The level of understanding of voters on the voting process increased.

       

      4.2 To broadly disseminate posters on voting process, location of polling station, the ballot papers and reminder of what to bring to polling station.

      4.3 Preparation and publishing of promotional material on voting process.

      4.4 Preparation and publishing of information on voting in the local newspapers.

      4.2.1 To prepare and broadly disseminate 60,000 posters with step-to-step explanation of voting process.

      4.2.2 To prepare and broadly disseminate 60,000 posters with a print-out of the ballot paper.

      4.2.3 To prepare and broadly disseminate 60,000 posters to remind voters of election date, time and polling location.

      4.3.1 Preparation and publishing of 500,000 leaflets on voting process.

      4.3.2 Production of banners for voting day.

      4.3.3 Production of billboards about voting.

      4.4.1 Preparation and publishing of ads on voting procedures.

      4.4.2 Preparation and publishing of ads to inform electors about election date and time of voting.

      - Illustration, typesetting and printing of 3 sets of 60,000 posters.

      - Illustration, typesetting and printing of leaflets.

      - Design and sew 5000 banners (1 per site)

      - Construct and paint 50 billboards.

      - Newspaper space.

      Voters understand of location of polling stations, the ballot paper and voting procedure increased.

      Voters sensitized about voting process.

      Increased understanding of candidates and political parties.

      Voters reminded about election dates and time.



      1 AFGHANISTAN Briefing, The Loya Jirga: One Small Step Forward? ICG Asia Briefing Paper, May 15, 2002

      2 AINA – Afghan Media Project, October 2002 Update

      3 John Butt (Lead Consultant, Media Support) Report on Loya Jirga Radio, May-June 2002

      4 The Loya Jirga: One Small Step Forward? ICG Asia Briefing Paper: 16 May 2002

      5 NDI, Senegal 1991, 38

      6 Danish Kerokhel, "New Bid to Reform Media", Afghan Recovery Report, 17/07/02