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Survey of Electors – Whitby–Oshawa / Yellowhead By-elections

Appendix B: Socio-Demographic Characteristics

This section outlines the demographic composition of the sample interviewed in this study. Overall, the sample had a good age and gender mix in both ridings. Whitby–Oshawa had a slightly higher proportion of female respondents (52% vs. 48%) and Yellowhead had a slightly higher proportion of male respondents (51% vs. 49%). The sample composition in terms of age was pretty similar in Whitby–Oshawa and Yellowhead.

Table B.1: Gender and Age – Gender
Gender Total
(n=1,503)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=753)
Yellowhead
(n=750)
Male 50% 48% 51%
Female 50% 52% 49%


Table B.1: Gender and Age – Age
Age Total
(n=1,503)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=753)
Yellowhead
(n=750)
18-34 27% 27% 28%
35-54 41% 42% 40%
55 and older 31% 30% 33%

Overall, close to nine in ten (88%) respondents were White/Caucasian. In Yellowhead, the proportion of White/Caucasian Canadians was significantly high than in Whitby–Oshawa (91% vs. 85%). Whitby–Oshawa had higher proportion of respondents who were Black Canadians (4% vs. 0%).

Table B.2: Ethnicity
Ethnicity Total
(n=1,503)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=753)
Yellowhead
(n=750)
White/Caucasian (Non-visible minority) 89% 86% 92%
Black 2% 4% 0%
Aboriginal Canadian 2% 1% 3%
South Asian/East Indian 1% 2% 0%
West Asian/North African/Arabs 1% 1% 0%
Latin American 0% 1% 0%
Filipino 0% 1% 0%
East Asia 0% 0% 0%
Chinese 0% 1% 0%
Pacific Islands 0% 0% 0%
Other 1% 1% 1%
Don't know 2% 1% 2%
Refusal 2% 3% 1%

Majority (90%) of those who took part in this study were born in Canada. Some other countries mentioned include United Kingdom (2%) and United States, Germany, Caribbean and Netherlands (all mentioned by 1% of respondents). The proportion of those born in Canada was significantly higher in Yellowhead (94%) as compared to Whitby–Oshawa (85%).

Table B.3: Country of birth
Country of birth Total
(n=1,503)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=753)
Yellowhead
(n=750)
Canada 90% 85% 94%
United Kingdom 2% 4% 1%
United States 1% 1% 1%
Germany 1% 0% 1%
Caribbean (general) 1% 1% 0%
Netherlands/Holland 1% 1% 0%
India 0% 1% 0%
South Africa 0% 0% 0%
Italy 0% 0% 0%
Philippines 0% 0% 0%
Poland 0% 0% 0%
Hong Kong 0% 0% 0%
China 0% 0% 0%
Other 3% 4% 1%
Don't know/Refused 1% 1% 0%

Overall, nearly half of the respondents worked full time (47%) and two in five (19%) were retired. The proportion of those working part-time was significantly higher in Yellowhead (11% vs. 7%, respectively). Yellowhead also had a significantly higher proportion of respondents who were self-employed (14% vs. 6%, respectively).

Table B.4: Employment status
Employment Status Total
(n=1,503)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=753)
Yellowhead
(n=750)
Working full-time (35 hours/week or more) 47% 49% 45%
Working part-time (less than 35 hours/week) 9% 7% 11%
Unemployed or looking for a job 4% 5% 3%
Self-employed 10% 6% 14%
Stay at home full-time 5% 4% 6%
Student 5% 8% 3%
Retired 19% 20% 17%
Disability pension 1% 1% 1%
Don't know/Refused 1% 1% 1%

There were a significantly higher proportion of University graduates in Whitby–Oshawa (38% vs. 18%) whereas Yellowhead had a higher proportion of those who have completed High school or less.

Table B.5: Education
Education Total
(n=1,503)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=753)
Yellowhead
(n=750)
HS Grad or Less 29% 18% 39%
Community College 34% 34% 35%
Some University 7% 7% 6%
University Grad 28% 38% 18%
Other 1% 1% 0%
Don't know/refusal 1% 1% 2%

Respondents from both ridings were fairly similar in terms of their annual household income. Yellowhead had a slightly higher proportion of respondents in the lowest two income groups.

Table B.6: Household income
Household income Total
(n=1,503)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=753)
Yellowhead
(n=750)
Under $20,000 3% 2% 4%
$20,000 to just under $40,000 8% 6% 9%
$40,000 to just under $60,000 9% 8% 10%
$60,000 to just under $80,000 8% 8% 8%
$80,000 to just under $100,000 14% 14% 14%
$100,000 and over 40% 42% 38%
Don't know/Refused 18% 20% 17%

In most cases, Internet usage has been found to be affected by age and education of respondents. In this study, the sample composition is fairly similar in terms of age of respondents but Whitby–Oshawa had significantly higher proportion of University graduates. This could be one of the reasons for a significantly higher proportion of Whitby–Oshawa respondents indicating that they use Internet.

Table B.7: INTERNET USAGE
Internet Usage Total
(n=1,503)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=753)
Yellowhead
(n=750)
Yes 90% 93% 87%
No 9% 6% 12%
Don't know/Refusal 1% 1% 1%

Less than one in ten (7%) respondents who participated in this study had a disability. Although this proportion was slightly higher in Whitby–Oshawa, the difference was minimal (8% vs. 6%). More than two in five (42%) disabled respondents had issues with mobility. Other disabilities commonly mentioned include co-ordination of dexterity (11%), mental health (7%), back injury/trouble (6%) and joints/knees/hips (6%).

Table B.8: Respondents with disability

Table B.7: INTERNET USAGE
Disability Total
(n=1,503)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=753)
Yellowhead
(n=750)
Yes 7% 8% 6%
No 93% 92% 94%
Nature of disability Total
(n=116)
Whitby–Oshawa
(n=66)
Yellowhead
(n=50)
Mobility 42% 40% 45%
Co-ordination or dexterity 11% 11% 12%
Mental health (general) 7% 9% 5%
Back injury/trouble 6% 5% 8%
Joints/knees/hips 6% 3% 9%
Deaf or hard of hearing 5% 8% 2%
Spinal cord/paralysis 5% 5% 5%
Arthritis 5% 3% 7%
Blind or visual impairment 4% 7% 0%
Diabetes 2% 1% 4%
Speech impairment 2% 2% 2%
Other 25% 22% 29%
Don't know 3% 3% 4%
Refusal 4% 6% 2%