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Public Opinion Survey Following the November 25, 2013 By-elections

Appendix A: Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Sample

This section illustrates the socio-demographic and situational differences among respondents to the survey in each of the four ridings surveyed. First, the age distribution of respondents in each riding differed significantly (see Figure A.1 below). Toronto Centre skewed significantly younger than the other three ridings. Bourassa and Brandon—Souris, alternately, skewed significantly older.

Figure A.1: Age
Age Bourassa
(n=403)
Brandon—Souris
(n=404)
Provencher
(n=421)
Toronto Centre
(n=403)
Overall
(n=1631)
18 to 34 24% 30% 28% 36% 29%
35 to 54 31% 33% 37% 32% 34%
55 and up 37% 35% 33% 25% 33%
Refusal 8% 2% 2% 7% 5%

Second, the ethnic breakdown of the four ridings cleaved largely along rural/urban lines (see Figure A.2 below). About two-thirds of respondents in Bourassa and Toronto Centre identified as white/Caucasian compared to rates of 90 percent or higher in the two Manitoba ridings. Bourassa had significant survey participation by Black, West Asian, North African, and Arab Canadians. Toronto Centre provided the most diverse sample, with a broader range of ethnicities represented than any other riding surveyed. The two Manitoba ridings had the largest representation of Aboriginal Canadians, particularly so in Provencher where six percent of electors identified themselves as such.

Figure A.2: Ethnicity
What is your ethnic background? Bourassa
(n=403)
Brandon—Souris
(n=404)
Provencher
(n=421)
Toronto Centre
(n=403)
Overall
(n=1631)
White/Caucasian (Non-visible minority) 67% 96% 91% 68% 81%
Black 17% 0% 0% 7% 6%
West Asian/North African/Arab 8% < 1% 0% 3% 3%
Aboriginal Canadian (First Nations, Métis, or Inuit) 0% 3% 6% < 1% 2%
Latin American 4% 0% 2% 1% 2%
South East Asian 2% < 1% 0% 4% 2%
South Asian/East Indian 1% 0% 0% 5% 1%
Chinese 0% < 1% 0% 5% 1%
East Asian < 1% < 1% 0% 2% 1%
Filipino 0% 0% 0% 1% <1%
Don't know/Refusal 2% 1% 1% 3% 2%

Trends for country of origin, per riding, largely mirrored those for ethnicity. Most respondents in the two Manitoba ridings were born in Canada, while about one-third of respondents in the two urban ridings immigrated to Canada (see Figure A.3 below). Per the survey results, Bourassa is home to a significant Haitian population with almost one-tenth (9%) of respondents reporting they were born in Haiti. Both Bourassa and Toronto Centre had large significant representation of electors born in "other" countries (see second last row of Figure A.3) – individually these countries of origin were reported by fewer than one percent of respondents in each riding, but together they form an important segment.

Figure A.3: Country of Origin
In what country were you born? Bourassa
(n=403)
Brandon—Souris
(n=403)
Provencher
(n=421)
Toronto Centre
(n=397)
Overall
(n=1625)
Canada 64% 97% 90% 67% 80%
Haiti 9% 0% 0% 0% 2%
United Kingdom 0% 2% 1% 4% 2%
Italy 7% 0% < 1% 0% 2%
Morocco 4% 0% 0% 0% 1%
United States < 1% 0% < 1% 3% 1%
Algeria 3% 0% 0% 0% 1%
Mexico 0% 0% 2% 1% 1%
China < 1% < 1% 0% 2% 1%
Paraguay 0% 0% 2% 0% <1%
Germany < 1% 1% 1% < 1% <1%
Russia 0% 0% 1% 1% <1%
Poland 0% 0% < 1% 2% <1%
Trinidad and Tobago 0% 0% 0% 1% <1%
France < 1% 0% 0% 1% <1%
Hong Kong 0% 0% 0% 1% <1%
Slovenia 0% 0% 0% 1% <1%
Lebanon 1% 0% 0% 0% <1%
Philippines 0% 0% 0% 1% <1%
Portugal 1% 0% 0% 0% <1%
Other (< 1% in all ridings) 9% 1% 3% 14% 7%
Don't know/Refusal 2% 0% 0% 2% 1%

Note: Columns may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

Overall about eight percent of respondents reported having a disability though this varied significantly between ridings, as did the nature of their disabilities (see Figure A.4, next page).

Figure A.4: Electors with Disabilities, and Natures of their Disabilities
Are you a person with a disability Bourassa
(n=403)
Brandon—Souris
(n=404)
Provencher
(n=421)
Toronto Centre
(n=397)
Overall
(n=1631)
Yes 5% 10% 8% 12% 8%
No 94% 90% 92% 87% 91%
Don't know/Refusal 1% < 1% < 1% 1% 1%
If yes, could you please specify the nature of your disability?
Mobility 63% 39% 77% 53% 56%
Co-ordination or dexterity 8% 24% 19% 9% 15%
Mental illness / psychological / cognitive dysfunction 0% 12% 8% 24% 14%
Blind or visual impairment 18% 15% 14% 4% 11%
Deaf or hard of hearing 10% 7% 12% 0% 6%
Speech impairment 0% 2% 8% 2% 3%
Other 4% 0% 0% 2% 1%
Don't know 5% 1% 0% 1% 1%
Refused to disclose 3% 8% 0% 14% 8%

Note: Electors who reported having a disability were permitted to provide as many replies as they deemed necessary to describe the nature of their disability/disabilities, and thus columns do not add up to 100%.

Employment status varied significantly between ridings (see Figure A.5 below), as well as by socio-demographic groups. Bourassa had higher rates of retired and unemployed respondents. Notably, only half of respondents (50%) in Bourassa reported some employment compared to rates of approximately two-thirds elsewhere. In the two Manitoba ridings there was significant representation by self-employed and part-time workers compared to the two urban ridings. On the other hand, the two urban ridings had significant representation of students and jobseekers.

Not surprisingly, the type of dwelling electors lived in broke largely along urban/rural lines (see Figure A.6 below). About nine-tenths of respondents in the two Manitoba ridings lived in houses, followed by a small share living in apartments; the two urban ridings were much more unique. In Toronto Centre, four-fifths of respondents live in either an apartment (44%) or a condominium (36%); far fewer lived in a house (12%). In Bourassa arrangements were somewhat different, with an equally large plurality living in apartments (44%), but a third living in houses (33%). A significant portion of respondents in Bourassa lived in townhouses compared to all other ridings (17%).

Table A.5: Employment Status
Which of the following best describes your own present employment status? Bourassa
(n=403)
Brandon—Souris
(n=404)
Provencher
(n=421)
Toronto Centre
(n=403)
Overall
(n=1631)
Employed 50% 66% 63% 62% 60%
Working full-time (35 hours/week or more) 39% 44% 42% 54% 45%
Working part-time (less than 35 hours/week) 6% 11% 8% 3% 7%
Self-employed 5% 11% 12% 5% 8%
Unemployed 13% 6% 10% 9% 9%
Unemployed or looking for a job 7% 3% 4% 8% 5%
Stay at home full-time 6% 3% 6% 1% 4%
Student 8% 3% 3% 8% 5%
Retired 29% 24% 22% 18% 23%
Other < 1% 2% 3% 2% 1%
Disability pension 0% 2% 1% 2% 1%
Other 0% 0% 2% 0% <1%
Don't know/Refusal 1% 0% < 1% 1% 1%

Note: Throughout this report the employment categories "Employed," "Unemployed," "Student," and "Retired," are used. The grey rows containing these headers represent those categories.

Figure A.6: Type of Dwelling
Which of the following best describes your type of dwelling? Bourassa
(n=403)
Brandon—Souris
(n=404)
Provencher
(n=421)
Toronto Centre
(n=403)
Overall
(n=1631)
House 33% 87% 92% 12% 56%
Apartment 44% 6% 4% 44% 24%
Condominium 3% 2% 2% 36% 11%
Townhouse 17% 3% 1% 8% 7%
Long-term care centre 3% 2% 1% < 1% 1%
Don't know/Refusal 1% 1% < 1% 1% 1%

Educational attainment differed significantly among respondents between ridings (see Figure A.7, next page). In Toronto Centre, about two-thirds (65%) of respondents completed either an undergraduate (39%) or post-graduate/professional degree program (26%) at a university; in the other three ridings only about one-quarter (25-28%) of respondents have a university degree. In Bourassa and Brandon-—Souris, pluralities of respondents completed community college, vocational / trade / commercial school, or a CEGEP program (27% in both ridings). Educational attainment was lowest in Provencher.

Figure A.7: Educational Attainment
What is the highest level of education that you have reached? Bourassa
(n=402)
Brandon—Souris
(n=404)
Provencher
(n=421)
Toronto Centre
(n=403)
Overall
(n=1630)
Post graduate university / professional school 9% 8% 7% 26% 13%
Completed university 16% 20% 18% 39% 23%
Some university 4% 8% 8% 7% 7%
Community college / vocational / trade school / commercial / CEGEP 27% 27% 19% 14% 22%
Completed high school 23% 25% 31% 10% 22%
Some high school 13% 11% 13% 1% 10%
Completed elementary 3% 1% 3% < 1% 2%
Some elementary 2% 1% 1% 0% 1%
Don't know/Refusal 3% 1% 0% 2% 2%

Respondents' household income varied significantly between and within ridings (see Figure A.8 below). Overall, respondents in Toronto Centre tended to belong to households with higher incomes, followed by respondents in the two Manitoba ridings, and then Bourassa. In Toronto Centre however, the distribution of incomes does not resemble a regular distribution (i.e., normal bell curve). Instead, there was a tendency towards the extremes with 25 percent under $40,000, 37 percent above $80,000, and only 18 percent "in the middle." Similar, but less dramatic, distributions were observed in the two Manitoba ridings as well, but not in Bourassa.

Figure A.8: Household Income
Which of the following categories best corresponds to the total annual income, before taxes, of all members in your household? Bourassa
(n=403)
Brandon—Souris
(n=404)
Provencher
(n=421)
Toronto Centre
(n=403)
Overall
(n=1631)
Under $20,000 15% 9% 6% 7% 9%
$20,000 to just under $40,000 26% 16% 15% 18% 19%
$40,000 to just under $60,000 19% 17% 20% 9% 16%
$60,000 to just under $80,000 11% 9% 14% 9% 11%
$80,000 to just under $100,000 5% 9% 12% 7% 8%
$100,000 and over 5% 23% 18% 30% 19%
Don't know/Refusal 0% 0% 0% 0% 18%

Internet usage was high across all four ridings, though particularly more so in Toronto Centre and less so in Bourassa (see Figure A.9, next page). Internet usage tended to be associated with higher-income households and younger respondents; groups which were more common in Toronto Centre and less common in Bourassa. Device usage related primarily to age, with younger respondents the most likely to use smart-phones, middle-aged respondents most likely to use tablets, and older respondents most likely to rely on desktop computers.

Figure A.9 Internet Usage
Do you use the Internet? Bourassa
(n=403)
Brandon—Souris
(n=404)
Provencher
(n=421)
Toronto Centre
(n=403)
Overall
(n=1631)
Yes 75% 84% 86% 94% 85%
No 24% 15% 14% 5% 15%
Don't know/Refusal 1% 1% < 1% 1% 1%
If yes, how do you access the Internet? Is it through a...
Laptop computer 59% 69% 64% 73% 67%
Desktop computer 72% 62% 60% 71% 66%
Smart phone (e.g., iPhone, Blackberry, Android phone, etc.) 43% 59% 56% 62% 55%
Tablet (e.g., iPad) 3% 37% 35% 47% 38%