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Aboriginal Electoral Participation in Canada

Appendix 1 – Construction of Variables

Variables from main models (Tables 1 to 3). All variables range from 0 to 1:

Voted (EC04_Q4 / EC06_Q15 / EC08_Q3 / EC11_Q3); 1 if voted in the last federal election, 0 if did not vote.

Registered (EC04_Q20 / EC06_Q1 / EC08_Q6 / EC11_Q9); 1 if recall receiving a voter information card addressed to them personally, 0 if do not recall.

Living on reserve (EC04_on_off / EC06_q69 / EC08_q63 / EC11_qx7); 1 if live on a reserve, 0 if do not live on a reserve.

Women (EC04_sex / EC06_gender / EC08_q91 / EC11_gend); 1 if women, 0 if men.

Age (EC04_age_grps / EC06_age_grps / EC08_age_mj / EC11_age2); 0 if under 25, .2 if 25–34, .4 if 35–44, .6 if 45–54, .8 if 55–64, 1 if 65 and over.

Education (EC04_Q40 / EC06_Q99 / EC08_Q88 / EC11_qs11); 0 if less than high school, .33 if completed high school, .67 if college, 1 if university.

Income (EC04_Q41 / EC06_Q100 / EC08_Q89 / EC11_qs12); 0 if under $20,000, .2 if $20,000–$40,000, .4 if $40,000–$60,000, .6 if $60,000–$80,000, .8 if $80,000–$100,000, 1 if $100,000 and over.

Rural residence (EC04_areatype / EC06_urban / EC08_q94 / EC11_qx5); 0 if urban, 1 if rural.

Region: British Columbia (EC04_region / EC06_region / EC08_q93 / EC11_reg); 1 if British Columbia, 0 otherwise.

Region: Ontario (EC04_region / EC06_region / EC08_q93 / EC11_reg); 1 if Ontario, 0 otherwise.

Region: Quebec (EC04_region / EC06_region / EC08_q93 / EC11_reg); 1 if Quebec, 0 otherwise.

Region: Atlantic (EC04_region / EC06_region / EC08_q93 / EC11_reg); 1 if Newfoundland or Prince Edward Island or Nova Scotia or New Brunswick, 0 otherwise.

Region: North (EC04_region / EC06_region / EC08_q93 / EC11_reg); 1 if Yukon or Northwest Territories or Nunavut , 0 otherwise.

Political resources (EC04_Q1, EC04_Q3 / EC06_Q61, EC06_Q62, EC06_Q63 / EC08_Q56, EC08_Q57 / EC11_Q60, EC11_Q61); 1 if high election attention and election knowledge (2004), 1 if high election attention, election knowledge and political interest (2006), 1 if high election attention and political interest (2008 and 2011).

Civic duty to vote (EC04_Q31b / EC06_Q60a / EC08_Q55a); 1 if strongly agree that it is the duty of citizens to vote in elections, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if strongly disagree.

Parties talked about important issues (EC04_Q31d / EC06_Q60g / EC08_Q55e); 1 if strongly agree that the parties talked about issues that are important, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if strongly disagree.

Saw general EC ad (EC04_Q10, EC04_Q14 / EC06_Q54, EC06_Q55, EC06_Q56 / EC08_Q46, EC08_Q48, EC08_Q50 / EC11_Q49); 1 if saw Elections Canada's general turnout advertisement, 0 otherwise.

Saw Aboriginal EC ad (EC04_Q44 / EC06_Q73 / EC08_Q66 / EC11_qa5); 1 if saw Elections Canada's Aboriginal turnout advertisement, 0 otherwise.

Variables from supplementary models (Table A3). All variables range from 0 to 1:

Saw general EC television ad (EC06_Q54 / EC08_Q50); 1 if saw Elections Canada's general turnout advertisement on television, 0 otherwise.

Heard general EC radio ad (EC06_Q55 / EC08_Q48); 1 if heard Elections Canada's general turnout advertisement on the radio, 0 otherwise.

Read general EC newspaper ad (EC06_Q56 / EC08_Q46); 1 if read Elections Canada's general turnout advertisement in the newspaper, 0 otherwise.

Saw EC slogan (EC06_Q57 / EC08_Q52 / EC11_Q52); 1 if saw Elections Canada's turnout slogan, 0 otherwise.

Was enumerated by EC (EC06_Q13); 1 if Elections Canada revising agents came to home to check registration, 0 otherwise.

Received EC flyer (EC08_Q40.1, EC08_Q40.2, EC08_Q40.3, EC08_Q41); 1 if recalls receiving an Elections Canada flyer, 0 otherwise.

Received EC brochure (EC11_Q56); 1 if recalls receiving an Elections Canada brochure, 0 otherwise.

Home owner (EC06_Q90); 1 if home is owned, 0 if rented.

Moved recently (EC06_Q91 / EC08_Q86 / EC11_QS14); 1 if has moved since September 2005 / July 2008 / May 2009, 0 otherwise.

Unemployed (EC06_Q92 / EC08_Q87 / EC11_QS7); 1 if unemployed, 0 otherwise.

Married or common law (EC06_Q97); 1 if married or living with common-law partner, 0 otherwise.

Has children (EC06_Q98); 1 if has children aged 18 or younger, 0 otherwise.

Has disability (EC08_Q87 / EC11_QS9); 1 if has a disability, 0 otherwise.

Has Internet access (EC08_Q58 / EC11_Q64); 1 if has Internet access at home, 0 otherwise.

Has cell phone (EC08_Q59.4); 1 if has a cell phone, 0 otherwise.

Has smart phone with Internet (EC11_Q65c); 1 if has a smart phone with Internet access, 0 otherwise.

Discusses politics online (EC08_Q61 / EC11_Q67); 1 if discusses politics online often, .5 if sometimes, 0 if never.

Others in household voted (EC08_Q85, EC08_Q85a); 1 if other people in the household voted, 0 otherwise.

Volunteer for a party (EC06_Q83); 1 if has ever volunteered for a federal political party, 0 otherwise.

Volunteer in community (EC06_Q85 / EC11_QS6); 1 if has ever volunteered / currently volunteers for a community group, 0 otherwise.

Party member (EC06_Q87 / EC08_Q82); 1 if has ever been / is currently a member of a federal political party, 0 otherwise.

Vote does not matter (EC04_Q31a); 1 if strongly agree that my vote doesn't really matter, .75 if somewhat agree, .5 if neither agree nor disagree, .25 if somewhat disagree, 0 if strongly disagree.

Issues are too complicated (EC04_Q31c); 1 if strongly agree that the major issues of the day are too complicated for most voters, .75 if somewhat agree, .5 if neither agree nor disagree, .25 if somewhat disagree, 0 if strongly disagree.

Aboriginals better off if more Aboriginal MPs (EC04_Q43a); 1 if strongly agree that Aboriginal people in Canada would be better off if more Aboriginal people were elected to Parliament, .75 if somewhat agree, .5 if neither agree nor disagree, .25 if somewhat disagree, 0 if strongly disagree.

Vote if more Aboriginal candidates (EC04_Q43b); 1 if strongly agree that I would be more likely to vote if there were more Aboriginal candidates in federal elections, .75 if somewhat agree, .5 if neither agree nor disagree, .25 if somewhat disagree, 0 if strongly disagree.

Guarantee Aboriginal number in Parliament (EC04_Q43c); 1 if strongly agree that there should be a guaranteed number of Aboriginal people in Parliament, .75 if somewhat agree, .5 if neither agree nor disagree, .25 if somewhat disagree, 0 if strongly disagree.

Sense of Aboriginal belonging (EC04_Q46b); 1 if very strong sense of belonging to First Nations people / Mιtis people / Inuit people, 0 if not at all strong.

Sense of provincial belonging (EC04_Q46c); 1 if very strong sense of belonging to province or territory, 0 if not at all strong.

Sense of Canadian belonging (EC04_Q46d); 1 if very strong sense of belonging to Canada, 0 if not at all strong.

Politicians are out of touch (EC06_Q60b / EC08_Q55b); 1 if totally agree that elected representatives are not in touch with citizens, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Citizens have no influence (EC06_Q60c); 1 if totally agree that citizens have no real influence on the actions of the government, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

MPs reflect Canadian society (EC06_Q60d); 1 if totally agree that the federal MPs are a good reflection of Canadian society, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Parties are the same (EC06_Q60e / EC08_Q55c); 1 if totally agree that all federal political parties are similar, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Parties are influenced by money (EC06_Q60f / EC08_Q55d); 1 if totally agree that political parties are too influenced by people who have a lot of money, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Low turnout weakens democracy (EC06_Q60h / EC08_Q55f); 1 if totally agree that the decline in voter turnout in Canada weakens Canadian democracy, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Vote if more Aboriginal candidates (EC06_Q72a); 1 if totally agree that you would be more likely to vote in federal elections if there were more Aboriginal candidates, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Minimum number of Aboriginal MPs (EC06_Q72b); 1 if totally agree that there should be a minimum number of Aboriginal MPs, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Minimum number of Aboriginal candidates (EC06_Q72c); 1 if totally agree that political parties should be required to run a minimum number of Aboriginal candidates, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Federal government represents Aboriginals (EC06_Q72d); 1 if totally agree that the federal government does a good job of representing your interests as an Aboriginal person, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

More Aboriginals should vote (EC06_Q72e); 1 if totally agree that more Aboriginal people should vote in federal elections to promote their points of view, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Aboriginals should be informed of civic rights (EC06_Q72f); 1 if totally agree that more efforts should be made to inform Aboriginals about their civic rights, .67 if somewhat agree, .33 if somewhat disagree, 0 if totally disagree.

Connection to community (EC11_Q69); 1 if very strong connection to the community, .67 if somewhat strong, .33 if somewhat weak, 0 if very weak.