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Aboriginal Electoral Participation in Canada

Appendix 2 – Supplementary Tables

Table A1a – Pooled Regression Models, Voter Turnout Among Subgroups
Aboriginals off reserve (2004–2008) Aboriginals on reserve (2004–2008) Urban Aboriginals (2004–2008) Rural Aboriginals (2004–2008)
Registered .19**
(.03)
.21**
(.03)
.18**
(.03)
.20**
(.03)
Living on reserve – – -.08**
(.04)
-.09**
(.03)
Women -.03
(.03)
.00
(.03)
-.04
(.03)
.01
(.03)
Age .24**
(.05)
.28**
(.05)
.27**
(.05)
.24**
(.05)
Education .04
(.04)
.14**
(.04)
.07*
(.04)
.10**
(.04)
Income .14**
(.05)
.08
(.07)
.17**
(.06)
.07
(.06)
Rural residence -.04
(.03)
-.03
(.05)
– –
Region: British Columbia .04
(.04)
.01
(.05)
.03
(.04)
.04
(.05)
Region: Ontario .02
(.04)
.05
(.04)
-.04
(.04)
.09**
(.04)
Region: Quebec .05
(.04)
-.17**
(.05)
.02
(.04)
-.12**
(.04)
Region: Atlantic -.06
(.05)
-.03
(.06)
-.02
(.06)
-.07
(.06)
Region: North .08*
(.05)
.03
(.08)
.24*
(.14)
.02
(.05)
Political resources .39**
(.05)
.37**
(.06)
.36**
(.05)
.41**
(.05)
Civic duty to vote .22**
(.04)
.33**
(.05)
.28**
(.05)
.26**
(.05)
Parties talk about impor. issues .04
(.04)
.03
(.05)
-.01
(.05)
.08*
(.04)
Saw general EC ad .02
(.03)
-.07*
(.04)
.03
(.03)
-.06*
(.03)
Saw Aboriginal EC ad .00
(.03)
.04
(.04)
.02
(.04)
.02
(.03)
Number of cases 831 642 648 825
Pseudo R-squared .31 .30 .37 .27

Cells contain marginal effects of logistic regression coefficients with standard errors in parentheses. All variables range from 0 to 1. **significant at .05; *significant at .10

Table A1b – Pooled Regression Models, Voter Turnout Among Subgroups
Aboriginals off reserve(2004–2011) Aboriginals on reserve (2004–2011) Urban Aboriginals (2004–2011) Rural Aboriginals (2004–2011)
Registered .21**
(.02)
.23**
(.03)
.21**
(.02)
.22**
(.03)
Living on reserve – – -.07**
(.03)
-.10**
(.03)
Women -.04
(.02)
-.01
(.03)
-.06**
(.03)
.01
(.03)
Age .24**
(.04)
.27**
(.05)
.26**
(.04)
.24**
(.05)
Education .07**
(.03)
.11**
(.04)
.08**
(.04)
.09**
(.04)
Income .10**
(.04)
.08
(.06)
.12**
(.04)
.04
(.05)
Rural residence -.02
(.03)
-.02
(.03)
– –
Region: British Columbia .04
(.04)
.06
(.04)
.05
(.04)
.05
(.05)
Region: Ontario .02
(.04)
.06*
(.04)
.02
(.04)
.07*
(.04)
Region: Quebec .06
(.04)
-.13**
(.04)
.01
(.04)
-.07*
(.04)
Region: Atlantic -.03
(.04)
-.02
(.06)
-.01
(.05)
-.04
(.05)
Region: North .11**
(.04)
.07
(.07)
.25**
(.09)
.06
(.05)
Political resources .44**
(.04)
.46**
(.05)
.42**
(.04)
.50**
(.04)
Civic duty to vote – – – –
Parties talk about impor. issues – – – –
Saw general EC ad .03
(.02)
-.05*
(.03)
.03
(.03)
-.05*
(.03)
Saw Aboriginal EC ad .00
(.03)
.04
(.03)
.02
(.03)
.03
(.03)
Number of cases 1067 851 927 991
Pseudo R-squared .29 .26 .32 .23

Cells contain marginal effects of logistic regression coefficients with standard errors in parentheses. All variables range from 0 to 1. **significant at .05; *significant at .10

Table A2 – Separate Regression Models, Voter Turnout (Pooled Version)
2004 2006 2008 2011
Registered .20**
(.03)
.16**
(.03)
.24**
(.04)
.24**
(.03)
Living on reserve -.07
(.07)
-.06
(.04)
-.12**
(.04)
-.04
(.04)
Women -.05
(.04)
-.03
(.03)
.04
(.04)
-.05
(.04)
Age .18**
(.07)
.36**
(.05)
.26**
(.06)
.15**
(.07)
Education .04
(.05)
.05
(.04)
.12**
(.05)
.05
(.06)
Income .16*
(.08)
.10*
(.06)
.13*
(.07)
.02
(.06)
Rural residence .01
(.07)
-.04
(.04)
-.03
(.04)
.04
(.04)
Region: British Columbia .16**
(.05)
-.05
(.05)
.02
(.06)
.07
(.06)
Region: Ontario .15**
(.05)
-.03
(.05)
.04
(.06)
.05
(.05)
Region: Quebec -.06
(.07)
-.06
(.05)
-.03
(.05)
.02
(.06)
Region: Atlantic .00
(.08)
-.01
(.06)
-.08
(.07)
.04
(.07)
Region: North .24
(.20)
.10*
(.05)
-.05
(.08)
.33**
(.11)
Political resources .50**
(.06)
.37**
(.06)
.34**
(.07)
.43**
(.06)
Civic duty to vote .27**
(.06)
.23**
(.05)
.28**
(.06)
–
Parties talk about impor. issues .00
(.06)
.02
(.05)
.16**
(.06)
–
Saw general EC ad .00
(.04)
.03
(.04)
-.03
(.05)
.02
(.04)
Saw Aboriginal EC ad .04
(.04)
.01
(.04)
.00
(.05)
.02
(.07)
Number of cases 449 554 470 445
Pseudo R-squared .35 .35 .30 .34

Cells contain marginal effects of logistic regression coefficients with standard errors in parentheses. All variables range from 0 to 1. **significant at .05; *significant at .10

Table A3 – Separate Regression Models, Voter Turnout (Complete Version)
2004 2006 2008 2011
Registered .21**
(.03)
.17**
(.03)
.24**
(.04)
.23**
(.04)
Living on reserve -.08
(.07)
-.05
(.04)
-.10*
(.05)
-.07*
(.04)
Mιtis – -.06
(.04)
-.06
(.06)
.02
(.04)
Inuit – .06
(.06)
.01
(.07)
.00
(.10)
Women -.02
(.04)
-.02
(.03)
.02
(.04)
-.04
(.04)
Age .19**
(.07)
.30**
(.06)
.31**
(.07)
.20**
(.08)
Education .03
(.06)
.04
(.05)
.05
(.05)
.05
(.06)
Income .15*
(.09)
.11*
(.06)
.03
(.07)
-.02
(.06)
Rural residence .02
(.07)
-.07*
(.04)
-.05
(.04)
.02
(.04)
Region: British Columbia .13**
(.06)
-.07
(.05)
.00
(.06)
.06
(.06)
Region: Ontario .13**
(.05)
-.03
(.05)
.01
(.06)
.07
(.05)
Region: Quebec -.07
(.08)
-.04
(.05)
-.03
(.05)
.02
(.06)
Region: Atlantic .00
(.08)
.01
(.07)
-.06
(.07)
.06
(.07)
Region: North .19
(.21)
.08
(.06)
-.07
(.08)
.31**
(.12)
Political resources .51**
(.06)
.26**
(.07)
.25**
(.07)
.40**
(.06)
Civic duty to vote .28**
(.06)
.23**
(.06)
.17**
(.06)
–
Parties talk about impor. issues .01
(.06)
-.01
(.06)
.12**
(.06)
–
Saw general EC ad -.01
(.04)
– – .00
(.04)
Saw Aboriginal EC ad .03
(.04)
.00
(.04)
.00
(.05)
.04
(.07)
Saw general EC television ad – -.05
(.03)
-.06*
(.04)
–
Heard general EC radio ad – .02
(.03)
-.02
(.04)
–
Read general EC newspaper ad – .07**
(.03)
.00
(.04)
–
Saw EC slogan – .06*
(.03)
.00
(.05)
-.01
(.06)
Was enumerated by EC – -.01
(.05)
– –
Received EC flyer – – .00
(.04)
–
Received EC brochure – – – .03
(.04)
Homeowner – -.01
(.03)
– –
Moved recently – .02
(.05)
-.03
(.07)
.01
(.05)
Unemployed – -.08*
(.04)
-.06
(.06)
.10*
(.06)
Married or common law – -.04
(.03)
– –
Has children – -.07**
(.03)
– –
Has disability – – -.16**
(.06)
-.10**
(.05)
Has Internet access – – .01
(.05)
.01
(.04)
Has cell phone – – .00
(.04)
–
Has smart phone with Internet – – – .03
(.05)
Discusses politics online – – -.04
(.06)
-.07
(.08)
Others in household voted – – .26**
(.03)
–
Volunteer for a party – .05
(.06)
– –
Volunteer in community – -.02
(.03)
– .08**
(.04)
Party member – .10*
(.06)
-.02
(.09)
–
Vote does not matter -.06
(.05)
– – –
Issues are too complicated .06
(.06)
– – –
Aboriginals better off if more Abor. MPs -.01
(.08)
– – –
Vote if more Aboriginal candidates .01
(.08)
– – –
Guarantee Abor. number in Parliament -.14*
(.08)
– – –
Sense of Aboriginal belonging .07
(.07)
– – –
Sense of provincial belonging .10
(.08)
– – –
Sense of Canadian belonging -.16*
(.08)
– – –
Politicians are out of touch – .00
(.06)
.00
(.06)
–
Citizens have no influence – -.06
(.05)
– –
MPs reflect Canadian society – .01
(.06)
– –
Parties are the same – -.02
(.05)
-.08
(.06)
–
Parties are influenced by money – -.12**
(.06)
.02
(.06)
–
Low turnout weakens democracy – .18**
(.06)
.05
(.07)
–
Vote if more Aboriginal candidates – -.01
(.06)
– –
Minimum number of Aboriginal MPs – .05
(.05)
– –
Minimum number of Abor. candidates – -.07
(.06)
– –
Federal govern. represents Aboriginals – -.05
(.05)
– –
More Aboriginals should vote – .18**
(.07)
– –
Abor. should be informed of civic rights – -.07
(.06)
– –
Connection to community – – – .12**
(.06)
Number of cases 434 553 470 445
Pseudo R-squared .36 .42 .39 .37

Cells contain marginal effects of logistic regression coefficients with standard errors in parentheses. All variables range from 0 to 1. **significant at .05; *significant at .10

Table A4 – Separate Regression Models, Voter Registration
2004 2006 2008 2011
Living on reserve .01
(.08)
.03
(.04)
-.11**
(.04)
-.05
(.04)
Women .06
(.04)
.06
(.03)
.09**
(.04)
.01
(.04)
Age .30**
(.08)
.25**
(.06)
.35**
(.06)
.24**
(.07)
Education -.04
(.06)
-.01
(.05)
.01
(.06)
.11*
(.06)
Income .16*
(.09)
.04
(.06)
.07
(.07)
.02
(.06)
Rural residence .03
(.07)
-.02
(.04)
.07*
(.04)
-.01
(.04)
Region: British Columbia .04
(.06)
.02
(.06)
-.04
(.06)
.09
(.06)
Region: Ontario .05
(.06)
.07
(.06)
-.01
(.06)
.10*
(.05)
Region: Quebec -.04
(.08)
.03
(.06)
.05
(.05)
.05
(.06)
Region: Atlantic .07
(.10)
.05
(.07)
.04
(.08)
.14*
(.08)
Region: North .26
(.24)
.08
(.05)
-.07
(.07)
.11
(.09)
Political resources .26**
(.07)
.27**
(.07)
.19**
(.07)
.31**
(.06)
Civic duty to vote .14**
(.07)
.02(
.06)
.11*
(.06)
–
Parties talk about impor. issues .02
(.07)
.03
(.06)
-.05
(.07)
–
Saw general EC ad -.01
(.04)
.04
(.04)
.03
(.05)
.13**
(.05)
Saw Aboriginal EC ad .01
(.05)
.00
(.04)
.00
(.05)
-.05
(.08)
Number of cases 452 555 470 445
Pseudo R-squared .09 .09 .12 .20

Cells contain marginal effects of logistic regression coefficients with standard errors in parentheses. All variables range from 0 to 1. **significant at .05; *significant at .10

Table A5a – Pooled Regression Models, Voter Registration Among Subgroups
Aboriginals off reserve (2004–2008) Aboriginals on reserve (2004–2008) Urban Aboriginals(2004–2008) Rural Aboriginals (2004–2008)
Living on reserve – – -.08*
(.04)
-.05
(.03)
Women .05*
(.03)
.10**
(.03)
.02
(.03)
.12**
(.03)
Age .35**
(.05)
.28**
(.06)
.37**
(.05)
.27**
(.05)
Education -.01
(.04)
.02
(.05)
-.04
(.05)
.02
(.04)
Income .17**
(.05)
.01
(.07)
.18**
(.06)
.02
(.06)
Rural residence .03
(.03)
.04
(.05)
– –
Region: British Columbia .05
(.04)
-.04
(.05)
.02
(.04)
-.01
(.05)
Region: Ontario .07
(.05)
.00
(.05)
.04
(.05)
.03
(.04)
Region: Quebec .05
(.05)
.05
(.05)
.05
(.06)
.04
(.05)
Region: Atlantic .08
(.06)
.07
(.07)
.09
(.07)
.07
(.06)
Region: North .02
(.05)
.22**
(.11)
-.02
(.09)
.08
(.05)
Political resources .24**
(.05)
.26**
(.07)
.32**
(.06)
.18**
(.06)
Civic duty to vote .08
(.05)
.07
(.06)
.12**
(.06)
.05
(.05)
Parties talk about impor. issues .00
(.05)
.00
(.05)
.06
(.05)
-.04
(.05)
Saw general EC ad .06*
(.03)
.00
(.04)
.04
(.03)
.03
(.03)
Saw Aboriginal EC ad -.01
(.04)
.02
(.04)
.00
(.04)
.00
(.03)
Number of cases 832 645 650 827
Pseudo R-squared .13 .08 .16 .08

Cells contain marginal effects of logistic regression coefficients with standard errors in parentheses. All variables range from 0 to 1. **significant at .05; *significant at .10

Table A5b – Pooled Regression Models, Voter Registration Among Subgroups
Aboriginals off reserve (2004–2011) Aboriginals on reserve (2004–2011) Urban Aboriginals (2004–2011) Rural Aboriginals (2004–2011)
Living on reserve – – -.04
(.03)
-.06*
(.03)
Women .04
(.03)
.10**
(.03)
.02
(.03)
.10**
(.03)
Age .34**
(.04)
.27**
(.05)
.34**
(.05)
.28**
(.05)
Education .02
(.04)
.01
(.04)
.01
(.04)
.02
(.04)
Income .12**
(.04)
.06
(.06)
.17**
(.05)
.01
(.05)
Rural residence .03
(.03)
.00
(.03)
– –
Region: British Columbia .07*
(.04)
-.02
(.04)
.03
(.04)
.01
(.05)
Region: Ontario .09**
(.04)
.03
(.04)
.07*
(.04)
.04
(.04)
Region: Quebec .04
(.04)
.06
(.05)
.06
(.04)
.05
(.04)
Region: Atlantic .10*
(.05)
.06
(.06)
.09
(.06)
.09
(.06)
Region: North .04
(.04)
.18**
(.09)
.04
(.07)
.07
(.05)
Political resources .29**
(.04)
.29**
(.05)
.35**
(.05)
.23**
(.05)
Civic duty to vote – – – –
Parties talk about impor. issues – – – –
Saw general EC ad .08**
(.03)
.02
(.03)
.05*
(.03)
.05
(.03)
Saw Aboriginal EC ad -.02
(.03)
.03
(.04)
.01
(.04)
.00
(.03)
Number of cases 1068 854 929 993
Pseudo R-squared .14 .09 .15 .09

Cells contain marginal effects of logistic regression coefficients with standard errors in parentheses. All variables range from 0 to 1. **significant at .05; *significant at .10

Table A6 – Profile of Average Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Electors (2004–2011)
Non-Aboriginals Aboriginals
Voted 83% 63%
Registered 89% 73%
Living on reserve – 42%
Age 45–54 35–44
Education College Completed high school
Income $60K–$80K $40K–$60K
Political resources (> midpoint) 67% 50%
Voting is a duty (agree) 92% 82%