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Comparative Assessment of Central Electoral Agencies

References

General

Benson, Jocelyn Friedrichs. 2008. "Democracy and the Secretary: The Crucial Role of State Election Administrators in Promoting Accuracy and Access to Democracy." Saint Louis University Public Law Review XXVIII, 2: 343–81.

Birch, Sarah. 2005. "Explaining Confidence in the Conduct of Elections." Paper presented to the Elections, Public Opinion and Political Parties Conference, University of Essex, September 9–11.

Burden, Barry C., D. Canon, S. Lavertu, K. Mayer and D. Moynihan. 2010. "Selection Method, Partisanship, and the Administration of Elections." Paper presented to the Midwest Political Science Association.

Elkit, Jorgen, and Andrew Reynolds. 2005. "A Framework for the Systematic Study of Election Quality." Democratization 12, 2 (April): 147–62.

Franz, Michael M. 2009. "The Devil We Know? Evaluating the Federal Election Commission as Enforcer." Election Law Journal 8, 3: 167–87.

Garrett, R. Sam. 2009. Deadlocked Votes Among Members of the Federal Election Commission (FEC): Overview and Potential Considerations for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. August 26.

Hasen, Richard L. 2005. "Beyond the Margin of Litigation: Reforming US Election Administration to Avoid Electoral Meltdown." Washington and Lee Law Review 62, 2: 940–99.

Illinois Legislative Assembly Legislative Research Unit. 2010. "Many States Restrict "Robo-Calls." First Reading 23, 1 (February).

Kervel, Yann. 2009. Election Management Bodies and Public Confidence in Elections: Lessons from Latin America. Washington, DC: IFES.

Kimball, David C., and Brady Baybeck. 2013. "Are All Jurisdictions Equal? Size Disparity in Election Administration." Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics and Policy 12, 2 (June): 130–45.

Mozaffar, Shaheen, and Andreas Schedler. 2002. "The Comparative Study of Electoral Governance – Introduction." International Political Science Review 23, 1 (January): 5–27.

Rowland, Christopher. 2013. "Deadlock by Design Hobbles Election Agency." Boston Globe. July 7. At www.bostonglobe.com/news/nation/2013/07/06/america-campaign-finance-watchdog-rendered-nearly-toothless-its-own-appointed-commissioners/44zZoJwnzEHyzxTByNL2QP/story.html.

Canada Case Study

Aucoin, Peter, ed. 1985. Party Government and Regional Representation in Canada. Research Study for the Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects for Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Bakvis, Herman, ed. 1991. Representation, Integration and Political Parties in Canada. Vol. 14 of Research Studies, Royal Commission on Electoral Reform and Party Financing. Toronto: RCERPF / Dundurn Press.

Canada. 2000. Canada Elections Act, S.C. 2000, c. 9. At http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/E%2D2.01/.

–––. 2007. An Act to amend the Canada Elections Act, S.C. 2007, c. 10. At http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/annualstatutes/2007_10/page-1.html.

Canadian Election Study. 2011. Elections Canada Questions, 2011. At http://ces-eec.org/pagesE/home.html.

Courtney, John C. "Canada's Chief Electoral Officer: Responsibilities and Independence." Toronto: Canadian Parliamentary Review (Spring 2007): 32–5.

Elections Canada. 2007. A History of the Vote in Canada. Ottawa: Office of the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada. At www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=res&dir=his&document=index&lang=e.

–––. 2010. Responding to Changing Needs: Recommendations from the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada Following the 40th General Election. Ottawa: Elections Canada.

–––. 2012. Office of the Chief Electoral Officer: 2012–2013 Estimates – Report on Plans and Priorities. Ottawa: Elections Canada.

–––. 2013a. Elections Canada Advisory Board: Briefing Book, 2013. Ottawa: Chief Electoral Officer of Canada.

–––. 2013b. Office of the Chief Electoral Officer: 2013–2014 Estimates – Report on Plans and Priorities. Ottawa: Elections Canada.

–––. 2013c. Preventing Deceptive Communications with Electors: Recommendations from the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada Following the 41st General Election. Ottawa: Elections Canada. At www.elections.ca/res/rep/off/comm/comm_e.pdf.

–––. 2013d. Survey of Electors on Communications with Electors. March. At www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=res&dir=cons/sece&document=index&lang=e.

Historica Foundation, Sheldon Chumir Foundation for Ethics in Leadership, Citizenship Matters, Elections Canada, and 7th Floor Media. n.d. "Expanding the Franchise – The Dominion Elections Act, 1920." At www.histori.ca/voices/page.do?pageID=311.

Law Commission of Canada. 2004. Voting Counts: Electoral Reform for Canada. Ottawa: Law Commission of Canada. At http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/J31-61-2004E.pdf.

Neufeld, Harry. 2013. Compliance Review: Final Report and Recommendations – A Review of Compliance with Election Day Registration and Voting Process Rules. Ottawa: Chief Electoral Officer of Canada.

Stilborn, Jack. 2010. "Funding the Officers of Parliament: Canada's Experiment." Toronto: Canadian Parliamentary Review 33, 2 (Summer): 38–42.

Australia Case Study

Australia. 1918. Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918. At www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/cea1918233/.

–––. 1940. Electoral and Referendum Regulations 1940. At www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_reg/earr1940327/.

–––. 1984. Referendum (Machinery Provisions) Act 1984. At www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2013C00200.

–––. 1990. Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act. At www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/coaca430/.

–––. 2011a. Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters, Reference: Conduct of the 2010 Federal Election and Matters Related Thereto. 2 March, EM 3.

–––. 2011b. Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters, Reference: Conduct of the 2010 Federal Election and Matters Related Thereto. 23 March.

–––. 2011c. Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters, Reference: Conduct of the 2010 Federal Election and Matters Related Thereto. 11 May, EM 2.

–––. 2011d. Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters, Reference: Conduct of the 2010 Federal Election and Matters Related Thereto. 25 May, EM 2.

–––. 2011e. Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters, Reference: Conduct of the 2010 Federal Election and Matters Related Thereto. 25 May, EM 4.

–––. 2011f. Joint Standing Committee on Electoral Matters, Reference: Conduct of the 2010 Federal Election and Matters Related Thereto. 25 May, EM 15–16.

–––. Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 2009. Electoral Reform Green Paper: Strengthening Australia's Democracy. Ch. 6.

Australian Electoral Commission. 2012. Australian Electoral Commission Annual Report 2011–12. At http://annualreport.aec.gov.au/2012/contents/files/aec-2011-12-annual-report.pdf.

–––. 2013. Australian Electoral Commission Annual Report 2012–13. At http://annualreport.aec.gov.au/2013/.

–––. n.d. At www.aec.gov.au.

Centre for Law and Democracy in collaboration with the Asia Foundation. 2012. Electoral Commissions and the Provision of Information: A Comparative Study of Better Practices Globally. Halifax, NS, and San Francisco, CA: Centre for Law and Democracy / Asia Foundation. September.

Dundas, Carl W. 1994. Dimensions of Free and Fair Elections: Frameworks, Integrity, Transparency, Attributes and Monitoring. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Farrell, D. M., and I. McAllister. 2006. The Australian Electoral System: Origins, Variations, and Consequences. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.

Hughes, Colin. 2001. "Institutionalising Electoral Integrity." Elections: Full, Free and Fair. Edited by Marian Sawer. Sydney: Federated Press, 142–57.

Kelly, Joe. 2013. "Lib Fury as Labor Ties Up Top AEC Posting." Australian (Surrey Hills, NSW). April 13.

Kelly, Norm. 2007. "The Independence of Electoral Management Bodies: The Australian Experience." Political Science 59, 2: 17–32.

–––. 2012. Directions in Australian Electoral Reform: Professionalism and Partnership in Electoral Management. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Maley, Michael. 2001. "The Australian Electoral Commission: Balancing Independence and Accountability." Representation 38, 1: 25–30. At http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00344890108523156.

Wall, Allen, et al. 2006. Electoral System Design: The International IDEA Handbook. Stockholm: International IDEA.

India Case Study

India. 1950a. Constitution of India. At www.constitution.org/cons/india/const.html.

–––. 1950b. Representation of the People Act 1950. No 43. At www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/Representation/bill200_20081202200_The_Representation_of_the_People_Act_1950.pdf.

–––. 1951. Representation of the People Act, 1951. No 43. At http://lawmin.nic.in/legislative/election/volume%201/representation%20of%20the%20people%20act,%201951.pdf.

–––. 1960. The Registration of Electors Rules, 1960. At http://lawmin.nic.in/olwing/Election%20Manual/EM_E2/(1)THE%20REGISTRATION%20OF%20ELECTORS%20RULES,%201960.pdf.

–––. 1961. The Conduct of Elections Rules 1961. At http://lawmin.nic.in/ld/subord/cer1.htm.

Election Commission of India. 1971. "Model Code of Conduct for the Guidance of the Political Parties and Candidates." At http://ceolakshadweep.gov.in/pdf/MCC/mcc.pdf.

–––. n.d. At http://eci.nic.in/eci/eci.html.

McMillan, Alistair. 2012. "The Election Commission of India and the Regulation and Administration of Electoral Politics." Election Law Journal 11 (November 2): 187–201.

Patidar, Vijay. 2005. "India: First Past the Post on a Grand Scale." Electoral System Design: The New International IDEA Handbook. Edited by Andrew Reynolds, Ben Reilly and Andrew Ellis. 39–42. Stockholm: International IDEA. At www.idea.int/publications/esd/.

Patidar, Vijay, and Ajay Jha. 2006. "India: The Embodiment of EMB Independence." Electoral Management Design: The International IDEA Handbook. Edited by Alan Wall et al. 192–95. Stockholm: International IDEA.

New Zealand Case Study

Bargh, Maria, ed. 2010. Māori and Parliament: Diverse Strategies and Compromises. Wellington: Huia Publishers.

Electoral Commission. 2012a. "Advice and Guidance 2011 General Election." At www.elections.org.nz/events/past-events-0/2011-general-election/advice-and-guidance-2011-general-election.

–––. 2012b. Annual Report of the Electoral Commission for the Year Ended 30 June 2012. At www.elections.org.nz/sites/default/files/plain-page/attachments/Electoral_Commission_Annual_Report_2012.pdf.

–––. 2013a. Annual Report of the Electoral Commission for the Year Ended 30 June 2013. At www.elections.org.nz/sites/default/files/bulk-upload/documents/electoral_commission_annual_report_2013.pdf.

–––. 2013b. Electoral Commission: Statement of Intent 2013/14–2015/16. At www.elections.org.nz/sites/default/files/plain-page/attachments/Electoral%20Commission%20SOI%202013-16_0.pdf.

–––. n.d. At www.elections.org.nz.

New Zealand. 1989. Broadcasting Act 1989. At www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1989/0025/latest/DLM155365.html.

–––. 1993. Electoral Act 1993. At www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1993/0087/latest/whole.html.

–––. 2004. Crown Entities Act 2004. At www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2004/0115/latest/DLM329631.html.

–––. 2009a. "Bill for New Electoral Commission Introduced." News Release. October 22.

–––. 2009b. Electoral (Administration) Amendment Bill: Regulatory Impact Statement. At www.justice.govt.nz/policy/regulatoryimpactstatements/electoral-administration-amendment-bill.

–––. 2010. Electoral (Administration) Amendment Act 2010. At www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2010/0026/latest/DLM2469709.html.

–––. 2011. Electoral (Administration) Amendment Act 2011. At www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2011/0057/latest/DLM3367610.html.

Roberts, Nigel S. 2005."New Zealand: Learning to Live with Proportional Representation." Electoral System Design: The New International IDEA Handbook. Edited by Andrew Reynolds, Ben Reilly and Andrew Ellis. 100–03. Stockholm: International IDEA. At www.idea.int/publications/esd/.

United Kingdom Case Study

Bogdanor, Vernon. 2009. The New British Constitution. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Committee on Standards in Public Life. 1998. Fifth Report: Funding of Political Parties.

–––. 2007. Eleventh Report: Review of the Electoral Commission. Cm 7006.

Electoral Commission. 2010a. "Elections Watchdog Publishes Assessment of (Acting) Returning Officers' Performance at the UK General Election." News release. December 2.

–––. 2010b. Enforcement Policy. December.

–––. 2012a. Electoral Legislation, Principles and Practice: A Comparative Analysis. September.

–––. 2012b. Use of New Investigatory Powers and Civil Sanctions. July.

–––. 2013a. Corporate Plan 201314 to 201718. July.

–––. 2013b. Who We Are. At www.electoralcommission.org.uk/our-work/who-we-are.

Ewing, K. D. 2001. "Transparency, Accountability and Equality: The Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000." Public Law: 542–70.

Gay, Oonagh. 2010. Responsibilities of Returning Officers. Standard Note SN/PC/05302, 28 January. London: House of Commons Library, Parliament and Constitution Centre.

Ghaleigh, Navraj Singh. 2010. A Model for Party Finance Supervision? The First Decade of the UK's Election Commission. University of Edinburgh School of Law Working Paper No 2010/19. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh School of Law.

James, Toby S. 2010. "Electoral Modernization or Elite Statecraft? Electoral Administration in the UK 2000–2007." British Politics 5, 2: 179–201.

–––. 2011a. "Fewer 'Costs', More Votes? UK Innovations in Electoral Administration 2000–2007 and Their Effect on Voter Turnout." Election Law Journal 10, 1: 37–52.

–––. 2011b. "Only in America? Executive Partisan Interest and the Politics of Election Administration in Ireland, the UK and the USA." Contemporary Politics 17, 3: 219–40.

–––. 2013. "Fixing Elections: What the US Can Learn from Britain." Washington Post. November 5.

Lachapelle, Guy, and Celine Roehrig. 2002. "The British Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act." Electoral Insight. May. At www.elections.ca/res/eim/article_search/issue.asp?issue=5&lang=e&textonly=false.

United Kingdom. 2000. Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. At www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2000/41/contents.

–––. 2009. Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2009. At www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2009/12/contents.

United Kingdom. Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice. 2007. The Government Response to the Committee on Standards in Public Life's Eleventh Report: Review of the Electoral Commission. Cm 7272.

United Kingdom. Parliament. House of Commons. 2008. The Speaker's Committee on the Electoral Commission: First Report 2008 – Appointment of the Chairman of the Electoral Commission. HC 961. July 14.

Watt, R. A. 2013. Reflections on a New Structure for the United Kingdom's Electoral Law: A Report for the Electoral Commission. June 26.

White, Isobel. 2008. The Electoral Commission. House of Commons Library, Parliament and Constitution Centre. July 21.

Wintour, Patrick, and Rajeev Syal. 2011. "Six Million Eligible Voters Not Registered, Says Electoral Commission." Guardian (London). December 14.

Wright, Oliver, and Jerome Taylor. 2012. "Electoral Commission Boss Faces Fight for Job After Claims of Fraud." Independent (London). May 3.

United States Case Study

Atkeson, Lonna Rae, and Kyle L. Saunders. 2007. "The Effect of Election Administration on Voter Confidence: A Local Matter?" Political Science and Politics 40, 4: 655–60.

Benson, Jocelyn Friedrichs. 2008. "Democracy and the Secretary: The Crucial Role of State Election Administrators in Promoting Accuracy and Access to Democracy." Saint Louis University Public Law Review XXVIII, 2: 343–81.

Burden, Barry C., D. Canon, S. Lavertu, K. Mayer and D. Moynihan. 2010. "Selection Method, Partisanship, and the Administration of Elections." Paper presented to the Midwest Political Science Association.

Carey, Maeve P. 2012. Presidential Appointments, the Senate's Confirmation Process, and Changes Made in the 112th Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

Center for Public Integrity. 2013. "How Washington Starves Its Election Watchdog." At www.publicintegrity.org/print/13996.

Election Assistance Commission. 2010. Help America Vote Act, 2002. At www.eac.gov/about_the_eac/help_america_vote_act.aspx.

–––. 2013. 2012 Activities Report. At www.eac.gov.

Federal Election Commission. 2012. Performance and Accountability Report: Fiscal Year 2012. At www.fec.gov.

–––. 2013. Draft FEC Strategic Plan, FY 2014–2019. At www.fec.gov.

–––. n.d. "What Does the FEC Do?" At www.fec.gov/ans/answers_general.shtml#What_does_the_FEC_do.

Fortier, John, Thomas Mann and Norman Ornstein. 2010. Hope and Experience: Election Reform Through the Lens of the AEI. Brookings Electoral Reform Project. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Hasen, Richard L. 2009. "Election Administration Reform: The New Institutionalism." California Law Review. Loyola-LA Legal Studies Paper No. 2009-17.

Issacharoff, Samuel, P. Karlan and R. Pildes. 2002. The Law of Democracy: Legal Structure of the Political Process. 2nd ed. New York: Foundation Press.

Kershner, Joshua. 2010. "Political Party Restrictions and the Appointments Clause: The Federal Election Commission's Appointments Process Is Constitutional." Cardozo Law Review 32, 5: 615–30.

Levinthal, Dave. 2013. "Federal Election Commission Gets New Blood: Senate Approves Obama's Two Picks for Beleaguered Agency." September 23. At www.public integrity.org/2013/09/23/13454/federal-election-commission-get-new blood.

Mann, Thomas E. 1997. "The Federal Election Commission: Implementing and Enforcing Federal Campaign Finance Law." Campaign Finance Reform: A Sourcebook. Edited by Anthony Corroda, et al. 277–80. Washington: Brookings.

Mann, Thomas E., and Norman Ornstein. 2012. It's Even Worse Than It Looks; How the American Constitutional System Collided with the New Politics of Extremism. New York: Basic Books.

Martinez, Ray. 2013. "Is the Election Assistance Commission Worth Keeping?" Election Law Journal 12, 2: 190–94.

Ostrander, Ian. 2013. "Winning the Waiting Game: Senatorial Delay in Executive Nominations." Ph.D. thesis. Washington University in St Louis Department of Political Science.

Presidential Commission on Election Administration. 2014. "The American Voting Experience: Report and Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on Election Administration." January. Washington, DC.

Samples, John. 2001. "Election Reform, Federalism, and the Obligations of Voters." Policy Analysis 417 (October 23). At http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/pa417.pdf.

Seifried, Brett A. 2012. "The King Is Dead; Long Live the King – Overcoming the Structural, Political, and Legal Barriers to Effective Campaign Enforcement: Surveying the Landscape and Looking Beyond the Federal Election Commission." At http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2029961.

Sheppard, Maurice C. 2007. The Federal Election Commission: Policy, Politics and Administration. Washington, DC: University Press of America.

Tokaji, Daniel P. 2009. "Voter Registration and Institutional Reform: Lessons from a Historical Election." Harvard Law and Policy Review (online) 3, 2 (January 22): 1–16. At www.hlpronline.com/ Tokaji_HLPR_012209.pdf.

Wertheimer, Fred, and D. Simon. 2013. The FEC: The Failure to Enforce Commission. Washington, DC: American Constitution Society.