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Establishing a Legal Framework for E-voting in Canada

Appendix B References

B.1 Literature

Allen Consulting Group. 2011. "Evaluation of Technology Assisted Voting Provided at the New South Wales State General Election March 2011." Melbourne, Australia: Allen Consulting Group. www.elections.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/93766/July_2011_Final_ACG_iVote_Report_ELE01-C_Final.pdf

Alvarez, Michael R., and Thad E. Hall. 2008. Electronic Elections: The Perils and Promises of Digital Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Alvarez, Michael, Gabriel Katz and Julia Pomares. 2011. "The Impact of New Technologies on Voter Confidence in Latin America: Evidence from E-voting Experiments in Argentina and Colombia." Journal of Information Technology & Politics 8, 2: 199–217.

Australian Electoral Commission. 2008. "Evaluation of the Remote Electronic Voting Trial for Overseas Based ADF Personnel Electors at the 2007 Federal Election." www.aec.gov.au/voting/files/adf_final_evaluation.pdf

Barrat i Esteve, Jordi, Ben Goldsmith and John Turner. 2012a. "Speed and Efficiency of the Vote Counting Process – Norwegian E-Vote Project." Washington, DC: International Foundation for Electoral Systems. www.regjeringen.no/upload/KRD/Prosjekter/e-valg/evaluering/Topic4_Assessment.pdf

2012b. "International Experience with E-voting – Norwegian E-Vote Project." Washington, DC: International Foundation for Electoral Systems. www.regjeringen.no/upload/KRD/Prosjekter/e-valg/evaluering/Topic6_Assessment.pdf

2012c. "Compliance with International Standards – Norwegian E-Vote Project." Washington, DC: International Foundation for Electoral Systems. www.regjeringen.no/upload/KRD/Prosjekter/e-valg/evaluering/Topic7_Assessment.pdf

Beaucamps, Phillippe, Daniel Reynaud-Plantey, Jean-Yves Marion and Eric Filiol. 2009. "On the Use of Internet Voting on Compromised Computers," ICIW '09: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information Warfare and Security.

Boyer, Patrick. 1981. Political Rights: The Legal Framework of Elections in Canada. Toronto, Ont: Butterworths.

Brightwell, Ian. 2011. "iVote Technology Assisted Voting: NSW State Election 26 March 2011." Sydney, Australia: New South Wales Electoral Commission. www.elections.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/94246/IE_Aust_Presentation_25_August_2011_v8.pdf

Buckland, Richard, and Roland Wen. 2012. "The Future of E-voting in Australia." IEEE Security & Privacy 10, 5: 25–32. DOI 10.1109/MSP.2012.59.

Canada–Europe Transatlantic Dialogue. 2010. "Internet Voting: What Can Canada Learn? Internet Voting Workshop Summary of Proceedings." Policy Workshop, January 26. www.canada-europe-dialogue.ca/events/2010-01-26-InternetVotingMaterials/2010-01-26-(E)Workshop_Proceedings_FINAL(April19).pdf

The Carter Center. 2012. The Carter Center Handbook on Observing Electronic Voting. Atlanta, GA: The Carter Center. www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/peace/democracy/des/Carter-Center-E_voting-Handbook.pdf

Castellani, Luca. 2010. "UNCITRAL Legislative Standards on Electronic Communications and Electronic Signatures: An Introduction." www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-t/oth/15/08/T15080000020001PDFE.pdf

Chevallier, M., W. Warynski and A. Sandoz. 2006. "Success Factors of Geneva's e-voting System." The Electronic Journal of e-Government, 4, 2: 55–62.

Commission on Electronic Voting. 2007. "Second Report of the Commission on Electronic Voting: Secrecy, Accuracy and Testing of the Chosen Electronic Voting System." Dublin, Ireland: Commission on Electronic Voting. www.umic.pt/images/stories/publicacoes1/Part%200%20Index.pdf

Council of Europe (COE). 2005. Legal, Operational, and Technical Standards for E-voting (Recommendation Rec(2004)11). Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing. www.coe.int/t/dgap/democracy/activities/GGIS/E-voting/Key_Documents/Rec(2004)11_Eng_Evoting_and_Expl_Memo_en.pdf

2010a. E-voting Handbook. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing. www.coe.int/t/dgap/democracy/activities/GGIS/E-voting/E-voting%202010/Biennial_Nov_meeting/ID10322%20GBR%206948%20Evoting%20handbook%20A5%20HD.pdf

2010b. "Third Meeting to Review Developments in the Field of E-voting Since the Adoption of Recommendation Rec(2004)11 on Legal, Operational and Technical Standards for E-voting." Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe. www.coe.int/t/dgap/democracy/activities/GGIS/E-voting/E-voting%202010/Biennial_Nov_meeting/GGIS(2010)19%20E%20corr.%20Meeting%20Report%20e-voting%20review%202010%2021%2012%2010.asp

Delvinia Interactive Inc. 2004. Internet Voting and Canadian e-Democracy in Practice: The Delvinia Report on Internet Voting in the 2003 Town of Markham Municipal Election. Toronto, Ont.: Delvinia Interactive Inc. www.delvinia.com/egov/Delvinia_Voting_Report_04.pdf

Elections BC. 2011. "Discussion Paper: Internet Voting." Victoria, BC: Elections BC.

Elections Canada. 2011a. "Report of the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada – Following the Pilot Project on the Use of an Assistive Voting Device in the November 29, 2010, By-election held in Winnipeg North." Ottawa, Ont.: Elections Canada.

2011b. "Report of the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada on the 41st General Election of May 2, 2011." Ottawa, Ont.: Elections Canada.

Elections Quebec. 2006. "Evaluation Report of New Methods of Voting – The Chief Electoral Officer Makes a Disturbing Diagnosis of the Problems that Occurred during the Municipal Elections of November 6, 2005." Québec, Que.: Elections Quebec. www.electionsquebec.qc.ca/english/news-detail.php?id=2146.

The Electoral Commission. 2007a. "Electronic Voting: May 2007 Electoral Pilot Schemes." London, UK: The Electoral Commission. www.electoralcommission.org.uk/__data/assets/electoral_commission_pdf_file/0008/13220/Electronicvotingsummarypaper_27194-20114__E__N__S__W__.pdf

2007b. "Key Issues and Conclusions: May 2007 Electoral Pilot Schemes." London, UK: The Electoral Commission. www.electoralcommission.org.uk/__data/assets/electoral_commission_pdf_file/0015/13218/Keyfindingsandrecommendationssummarypaper_27191-20111__E__N__S__W__.pdf

Electronic Frontier Finland. 2009. A Report on the Finnish E-voting Pilot. Finland: Electronic Frontier Finland. www.effi.org/system/files?file=FinnishEVotingCoEComparison_Effi_20080801.pdf

E-Mergent Management Research. 2010. "A Study of Internet Voting Security Risks and Accessibility Opportunities for the Town of Markham." Markham, Ont.: Town of Markham.

Estonian National Electoral Committee. 2004. "Kasutusloomudeli ülevaade, document EH-04-02-01." Tallinn, Estonia: Estonian National Electoral Committee. www.vvk.ee/public/dok/Kasutusloomudeli-ylevaade-EH-04-02-01.pdf

n.d. "Statistics about Internet Voting in Estonia." www.vvk.ee/voting-methods-in-estonia/engindex/statistics.

Funke, Alice. n.d. "2011 General Election." Pundits' Guide to Canadian Federal Elections. www.punditsguide.ca/elections/?elec_event=26&qry=8

Geist, Michael. 2010 (March 9). "Casting a Vote Against Internet Voting." www.michaelgeist.ca/content/view/4849/159/

2012 (March 31). "Internet Voting Carries Risk as Shown by NDP Experience." Toronto Star.

Goldsmith, Ben. 2011. Electronic Voting & Counting Technologies: A Guide to Conducting Feasibility Studies. Washington, DC: International Foundation for Electoral Systems. www.ifes.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Books/2011/Electronic_Voting_and_Counting_Tech_Goldsmith.pdf

Gonggrijp, Rop et al. 2006. "Nedap/Groenendaal ES3B Voting Computer: A Security Analysis." The Netherlands: The "We Do Not Trust Voting Computers" Foundation. http://wijvertrouwenstemcomputersniet.nl/other/es3b-en.pdf

Goodman, Nicole, Jon Pammet and Joan DeBardeleben. 2010. "A Comparative Assessment of Electronic Voting." Ottawa, Ont.: Elections Canada. www.elections.ca/res/rec/tech/ivote/comp/ivote_e.pdf

Government of Canada. 2012. "GC Information Technology Incident Management Plan." Ottawa, Ont.: Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/sim-gsi/sc-cs/docs/itimp-pgimti/itimp-pgimti01-eng.asp

Hall, Joseph Lorenzo. 2006. "Transparency and Access to Source Code in Electronic Voting." USENIX/ACCURATE Electronic Voting Technology (EVT'06) Workshop. http://josephhall.org/papers/jhall_evt06.pdf

Heiberg, Sven, Peeter Laud and Jan Willemson. 2011. "The Application of I-voting for Estonian Parliamentary Elections of 2011." http://research.cyber.ee/~jan/publ/evote2011.pdf

Hogg, Peter. 2007. Constitutional Law of Canada, 5th edition. Toronto, Ont.: Carswell.

Hole, Kjrell, and Lars-Hell Neglen. 2010. "Towards Risk Assessment of Large-Impact and Rare Events." IEEE Security & Privacy, 8, 3: 21–27.

Jones, Douglas, and Barbara Simons. 2012. Broken Ballots: Will Your Vote Count? Stanford: CLSI Press.

Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. Toronto, Ont.: Doubleday Canada.

Kapoor, K. C. 2011. "Online Voting System. eGov: Best Urban ICT Initiative of the Year." http://awards.eletsonline.com/2011/11/15/online-voting-system.

Karhumäki, Juhani, and Tommi Meskanen. 2008. "Audit Report on Pilot Electronic Voting in Municipal Elections." Turku, Finland. www.vaalit.fi/uploads/5bq7gb9t01z.pdf

Kelly, Sanja, and Sarah Cook (eds.). 2011. Freedom on the Net 2011: A Global Assessment of Internet and Digital Media. Washington, DC: Freedom House. www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/FOTN2011.pdf.

Kumar, Sanjay. 2011. "Analysis of Electronic Voting System [sic] in Various Countries." International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering 3, 5: 1825–30.

Lundell, Jonathan. 2007. "Review: Irish Commission on Electronic Voting." Voting Matters (McDougall Trust), Issue 23: 13–17.

Martens, Tarvi. 2010. "Internet Voting in Estonia." http://canada-europe-dialogue.ca/events/2010-01-26-InternetVotingMaterials/TarviMartens.pdf

2012. Interview on June 20, 2012.

Melia, Paul, and Luke Byrne. 2012 (June 29). "€54m Voting Machines Scrapped for €9 Each." Irish Independent. www.independent.ie/national-news/54m-voting-machines-scrapped-for-9-each-3153437.html

New South Wales Electoral Commission. 2011. "iVote: Technology Assisted Voting Approved Procedures for NSW State General Election 2011." Sydney, Australia: New South Wales Electoral Commission. www.elections.nsw.gov.au/publications/policies/ivote_approved_procedures

Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development. 2006. "Electronic Voting: Challenges and Opportunities." www.regjeringen.no/upload/kilde/krd/red/2006/0087/ddd/pdfv/298587-evalg_rapport_engelsk201106.pdf

2009. "E-vote 2011: System Requirements Specification." www.regjeringen.no/upload/KRD/Kampanjer/valgportal/e-valg/Anskaffelse/System_Requirements_Specification1.pdf

2011. "Project Mandate for E-vote 2011 Project." www.regjeringen.no/upload/KRD/Kampanjer/valgportal/e-valg/Prosjektdirektiv_evalg2011_English.pdf

Open Rights Group. 2007. "May 2007 Election Report: Findings of the Open Rights Group Election Observation Mission in Scotland and England." London, UK: Open Rights Group. www.openrightsgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/org_election_report.pdf

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). 2006. "Netherlands. Parliamentary Elections, 22 November 2006. Election Assessment Mission Report." Warsaw, Poland: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. www.osce.org/odihr/elections/netherlands/24322

2007. "Republic of Estonia Parliamentary Elections, 4 March 2007. Election Assessment Mission Report." Warsaw, Poland: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. www.osce.org/odihr/elections/estonia/25925

2010. Election Observation Handbook, Sixth edition. Warsaw, Poland: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. www.osce.org/odihr/elections/68439

2011. "Estonia Parliamentary Elections, 6 March 2011. Election Assessment Mission Report." Warsaw, Poland: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. www.osce.org/odihr/77557

2012a. Switzerland. "Swiss Confederation Federal Assembly Elections, 23 October 2011. Election Assessment Mission Report." Warsaw, Poland: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. www.osce.org/odihr/87417

2012b. "Norway: Internet Voting Pilot Project: Local Government Elections, Election Expert Team Report." Warsaw, Poland: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. www.osce.org/odihr/88577

2012c. "Republic of France Parliamentary Elections 10 and 17 June, 2012. Needs Assessment Mission Report." Warsaw, Poland: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. www.osce.org/odihr/elections/90763

Organization of American States (OAS). 2001. Inter-American Democratic Charter. Washington, DC: Organization of American States. www.oas.org/OASpage/eng/Documents/Democractic_Charter.htm

Paris, Maeve. 2004. "Accessible Democracy and Electronic Voting in the Republic of Ireland." Information Technology and Disabilities 10, 2.

Pieters, Wolter, and M. J. Becker. 2005. "Ethics of E-voting: An essay on Requirements and Values in Internet Elections." Ethics of New Information Technology: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of Computer Ethics (CEPE2005), 17–19 Jul 2005, Enschede, The Netherlands; 307–318. Centre for Telematics and Information Technology, University of Twente. http://eprints.eemcs.utwente.nl/13894/.

PricewaterhouseCoopers. 2011. "Technology Assisted Voting Audit: Post Implementation Report." Sydney, Australia: PricewaterhouseCoopers. www.elections.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/93481/iVote_Audit_report_PIR_Final.pdf

Prolexic. 2012. "Prolexic Attack Report: Q1 2012." Hollywood, FL: Prolexic. www.prolexic.com/pdf/ProlexicQ12012AttackReport.pdf.

République et Canton de Genève. 2009. "Online Voting: Challenges and Outcomes." www.geneve.ch/evoting/english/presentation_projet.asp

Rubin, Avi. 2007 (August 26). "The Virus Did It." http://avi-rubin.blogspot.ca/2007/08/virus-did-it.html.

Ruus, Kertu. 2008. "Cyber War I: Estonia Attacked from Russia." European Affairs (European Institute), 9, 1-2. www.europeaninstitute.org/2007120267/Winter/Spring-2008/cyber-war-i-estonia-attacked-from-russia.html.

Scytl. 2012. "French Expats Vote Online in Legislative Elections with Scytl's Technology." Company news release, July 11. Barcelona, Spain: Scytl. http://eon.businesswire.com/news/eon/20120711005780/en/Scytl/France/Ministry-of-Foreign-Affairs

Scytl Canada. 2012. "NDP Leadership Vote Result Not Compromised by 'Malicious, Orchestrated Effort' to Clog Online Balloting System at Weekend Convention, Says Scytl Canada." Company news release, March 27. Toronto, Ont.: Scytl Canada. www.newswire.ca/en/story/944715/ndp-leadership-vote-result-not-compromised-by-malicious-orchestrated-effort-to-clog-online-balloting-system-at-weekend-convention-says-scytl-canada

Shaffer, Frederick Charles. 2008. "Clean Election Reform and Its Hidden Costs: Lessons from Florida and Quebec." www.wcfia.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/Clean%20Election%20Reform%20And%20Its%20Hidden%20Costs%20Schaffer.pdf

Smith, Justice Matthew. 2006. "Second Report of the Commission on Electronic Voting on the Secrecy, Accuracy and Testing of the Chosen Electronic Voting System." Dublin, Ireland: Commission on Electronic Voting. www.umic.pt/images/stories/publicacoes1/Part%200%20Index.pdf

United Nations. 1999. "UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment 1996." New York, NY: United Nations Publications. www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/texts/electcom/05-89450_Ebook.pdf

United States Election Assistance Commission (US EAC). 2005. Voluntary Voting System Guidelines. Washington, DC: US Election Assistance Commission. www.eac.gov/testing_and_certification/voluntary_voting_system_guidelines.aspx

2011. "A Survey of Internet Voting." Washington, DC: US Election Assistance Commission. www.eac.gov/assets/1/Documents/SIV-FINAL.pdf

Volkamer, Melanie, Oliver Spycher and Eric Dubuis. 2011. "Measures to Establish Trust in Internet Voting." ICEGOV 2011, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, September 26–28, 2011, Tallinn, Estonia.

Wolchok, Scott, Eric Wustrow, Dawn Isabel and J. Alex Halderman. 2012. "Attacking the Washington, D.C. Internet Voting System." Proc. 16th Conference on Financial Cryptography & Data Security, February 2012.

Young, John Hardin, ed. 2009. International Election Principles: Democracy and the Rule of Law. Chicago, IL: American Bar Association.

B.2 Case Law

Cusimano v. Toronto (City), 2011 ONSC 2527
Dixon v. British Columbia (Attorney General), 59 DLR (4th) 247; [1989] 4 WWR 393; 35 BCLR (2d) 273
Figueroa v. Canada (Attorney General), 2003 SCC 37
Haig v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer), [1993] 2 SCR 995
Henry v. Canada (Attorney General), 2010 BCSC 610
Hoogbruin v. A.G.B.C., 24 DLR (4th) 718; [1986] 2 WWR 700; 20 CRR 1; 70 BCLR 1
Hughes, James Peter v. Election [sic] Canada, 2010 CHRT 4
Opitz v. Wrzesnewskyj, 2012 SCC 55
Re Ontario Film and Video Appreciation Society, (1984) 45 OR (2d) 80<
Reference re Prov. Electoral Boundaries (Sask.), [1991] 2 SCR 158
Wrzesnewskyj v. Attorney General (Canada). 2012 ONSC 2873

Australia, Yarran v. Blurton, [1992] FCA 260 (Federal Court of Australia, June 1992)
Estonia, Constitutional Judgement 3-4-1-13-05 (Constitutional Review Chamber of the Supreme Court, September 2005)
Finland, KHO:2009:39 (Supreme Administrative Court, April 2009)
Germany, BVerfG, 2 BvC 3/07 (Federal Constitutional Court, March 2009)
United States, Voting Integrity Project v. Fleisher, 4 ILRD 549 (Arizona District Court, March 2000)

B.3 Legislation and Regulations

Canadian
Access to Information Act, RSC 1985, c A-1
Canada Elections Act, SC 2000, c 9
Canadian Human Rights Act, RSC, 1985, c H-6
The Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (UK), 1982, c 11 [Charter]
Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, SC 2000, c 5
Secure Electronic Signature Regulations (SOR/2005-30)

Alberta: Election Act, RSA 2000, c E-1
Nova Scotia: Municipal Elections Act, RSNS 1989, c 300
Ontario: Electronic Commerce Act, 2000, SO 2000, c 17
Ontario: Municipal Elections Act, 1996, SO 1996, c 32, Sch
Quebec: An Act to Establish a Legal Framework for Information Technology, RSQ, c C-1.1

International
California, California Elections Code
Estonia, (Parliament) Election Act, 2002
Estonia, Penal Code, RT I 2001, 61, 364
France, Electoral Code, article R176-3-2
Gujarat (India), Urban Development and Urban Housing Department Orders (June 5, 2010)
New South Wales, Parliamentary Electorates and Elections Act 1912 No. 41
Norway, Pilot Schemes in Public Administration Act (Act No. 87 of 26 June 1992)
Norway, Representation of the People Act (Act No. 57 of 28 June 2002) Regulations relating to trial electronic voting. FOR 2011-03-31
Switzerland, Federal Act on Political Rights. SR 161.1, Title 1
United Nations, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 999, p. 171
United States, Help America Vote Act of 2002 (Pub. L. 107–252)