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Report of the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada following the May 13 and December 9, 2002 by-elections


The 2002 by-elections


Nine members of Parliament resigned their seats in the House of Commons during 2002:


The seven by-elections on May 13

On March 27, the Prime Minister announced that by-elections would be held on May 13 to fill the vacancies in the first five electoral districts: Bonavista–Trinity–Conception, Calgary Southwest, Saint Boniface, Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel, and Windsor West. Following this announcement, the Chief Electoral Officer issued writs to the returning officers of the five electoral districts, directing them to conduct the by-elections. This gave the returning officers an electoral calendar of 47 days.

On April 5, the Prime Minister announced that by-elections to fill the vacancies in the next two electoral districts (Gander–Grand Falls and Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles) would also be held on May 13. The Chief Electoral Officer then issued writs to the returning officers of these two electoral districts, directing them to conduct the by-elections according to a 38-day calendar.

Table 1 is an overview of the important milestones during the period from the issue of the first five writs to the return of all seven.



Table 1
Key dates for the May 13, 2002, by-elections in Bonavista–Trinity–Conception, Calgary Southwest,
Gander–Grand Falls, Saint Boniface, Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel,
Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles and Windsor West
Date Election calendar day Event
March 27 Day 47 Issue of the writs for Bonavista–Trinity–Conception, Calgary Southwest, Saint Boniface, Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel and Windsor West; preparations made to open the offices of the returning officers; voting by special ballot may begin
March 28 Day 46 Notice of Election published in Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel; candidates may file nominations
March 29 Day 45 Notice of Election published in Bonavista–Trinity–Conception; candidates may file nominations
March 30 Day 44 Notice of Election published in Calgary Southwest and Saint Boniface; candidates may file nominations
March 31 Day 43 Notice of Election published in Windsor West; candidates may file nominations
April 5 Day 38 Issue of the writs for Gander–Grand Falls and Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles; preparations made to open the offices of the returning officers; voting by special ballot may begin
April 7 Day 36 Notice of Election published in Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles; candidates may file nominations
April 8 Day 35 Notice of Election published in Gander–Grand Falls; candidates may file nominations
April 10 Day 33 Revision of lists of electors begins
April 15 Day 28 Targeted revision begins
April 17, 18 and 19 Days 26, 25 and 24 Voter information cards mailed to all registered electors
April 22 Day 21 (2:00 p.m.) Nomination of candidates close
May 2 Day 11 Revised lists of electors distributed
May 3, 4 and 6 Days 10, 9 and 7 Advance polls
May 7 Day 6 (6:00 p.m.) Revision and special ballot registration end for those voting by special ballot
May 10 Day 3 Official lists of electors distributed
May 13 Day 0 Advertising blackout in effect; election day
May 14 Day -1 Validation of the results performed in Bonavista–Trinity–Conception, Calgary Southwest, Saint Boniface, Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel, Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles and Windsor West
May 16 Day -3 Validation of the results performed in Gander–Grand Falls
May 21, 23 Days -8, -10 Writs returned


The two by-elections on December 9

On November 1, the Prime Minister announced that two by-elections would be held on December 9 to fill the vacancies in Berthier–Montcalm and Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay. Following this announcement, the Chief Electoral Officer issued writs to the returning officers, directing them to conduct the by-elections according to a 38-day calendar.

Table 2 is an overview of the important milestones during the election period from the issue of the writs to their return.



Table 2
Key dates for the December 9, 2002, by-elections in Berthier–Montcalm and
Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay
Date Election calendar day Event
November 1 Day 38 Issue of the writs; preparations made to open the offices of the returning officers; voting by special ballot may begin
November 2 Day 37 Notice of Election published in Berthier–Montcalm; candidates may file nominations
November 5 Day 34 Notice of Election published in Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay; candidates may file nominations
November 6 Day 33 Revision of lists of electors begins
November 11 Day 28 Targeted revision begins
November 12, 13 and 14 Days 27, 26 and 25 Distribution of the householder in Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay
November 13, 14 and 15 Days 26, 25 and 24 Voter information cards mailed to all registered electors
November 18 Day 21 (2:00 p.m.) Nomination of candidates close
November 19 Day 20 Reminder cards are distributed in Berthier–Montcalm
November 28 Day 11 Revised lists of electors distributed
November 29, 30 and December 2 Days 10, 9 and 7 Advance polls
December 3 Day 6 (6:00 p.m.) Revision and special ballot registration end for those voting by special ballot
December 6 Day 3 Official lists of electors distributed
December 9 Day 0 Advertising blackout in effect; election day
December 10 Day -1 Validation of the results performed
December 17 Day -8 Writs returned


Communicating with electors

An important part of Elections Canada’s work during a by-election, as in all electoral events, is to generate awareness of the by-election and the key dates in the election period among the general public, political parties, candidates, and the news media.

One of the principal means of communicating with the general public during the May by-elections was the householder, a pamphlet distributed to each residence within days of the issue of the writ. The householder provided the name, address and phone number of the returning officer and details of how to have names added to, or corrected on, the lists of electors. It also gave information on deadlines for voting by special ballot, the dates of advance polls, and the residency requirements for voting in a by-election. The pamphlet alerted electors that they would shortly receive a voter information card, and emphasized the importance of keeping the card until election day.

The voter information cards were individually addressed to electors whose names appeared on the preliminary lists of electors. Arriving immediately after the householder, they provided details of where and when electors could vote, including several alternative ways of voting for electors who did not wish to go to their polling stations on election day.

To see whether we could increase the effectiveness of the voter information card, in one of the December by-elections we undertook a pilot project involving a redesigned voter information card and a new reminder card. To provide a basis for comparison, in Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay we sent out information to electors in the same way as in the past: the householder, followed by the redesigned voter information card. In Berthier–Montcalm, however, we first sent out the redesigned voter information card, following it a week later with a reminder card. The card reminds the elector to act without delay if he or she has not received a voter information card in his or her name, and gives the address and telephone number of the returning officer. Feedback from the returning officer for Berthier–Montcalm and the results of telephone surveys conducted during the by-election indicate that the reminder card performed very well in its clarity, language and timeliness. We measured the extent to which electors remembered the reminder card or the householder, the action that electors took, and the perceived importance of keeping the document. When the Berthier–Montcalm results are compared to the results of the surveys conducted in Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay, where the householder was used, the reminder card appeared to outperform the householder.

Elections Canada uses census data to find out whether there are ethnocultural or Aboriginal communities within an electoral district, of a size that would warrant translating information into other languages. Although translation was not necessary in any of the nine electoral districts, we sent information kits to ethnocultural associations and Friendship Centres. We made essential information available on request to special-needs organizations in alternative formats, including Braille, large print, and audio-cassette, but we received no requests for the material.

During the by-elections, we used radio and print advertisements on several occasions. The arrival of the voter information card was supported by print ads in daily and weekly newspapers and by radio ads broadcast several times on stations serving listeners in the electoral districts. As election day approached, we ran print and drive-to-work radio ads to remind electors to check their voter information cards for the location of their polling stations, and to let them know that they could register to vote on election day, with proper identification.

We also provided information to the media to make sure that electors had the information necessary to vote. For each by-election, we distributed a media information kit with the news release launching the election period, a profile of the electoral district, a calendar of important dates, and background information on topics ranging from the electoral process and the role of Elections Canada to the Special Voting Rules, the National Register of Electors, and election expenses and contributions guidelines for candidates and parties.

Over the course of each campaign, we issued 18 news releases highlighting key dates, election day reminders, and clarification of what the media could and could not report on election day. We also posted all news releases in the media folder on our Web site.

On our Web site, we set up a special by-election section where electors could find information specific to their ridings, including the lists of official candidates, the electoral district maps, the addresses and telephone numbers of the returning officers, and general information on the voting process and voting by special ballot. On election night, we posted results on the Web site as they became available.

Throughout the election periods, bilingual staff of our Enquiries Unit were available through our toll-free telephone line, our toll-free TTY line for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing, and on the Web to answer questions and send out information about the electoral process.


Communicating with candidates, official agents and auditors

For each by-election, the returning officer provided all election documentation and maps to the candidates and their official agents and auditors.

We also asked each returning officer to hold discussions with the various representatives of the political parties – including candidates and campaign chairs – to make sure that everyone received the same information. We believe that these meetings are important because they encourage discussion and explanations of the various procedures by which electors can vote, the rules to follow on election day, and the election officer positions for which the candidates or political parties may recommend applicants. Informal evaluations after the by-elections indicated that the meetings were well received by the political parties.


Revising the lists of electors

Elections Canada used the National Register of Electors to produce the preliminary lists of electors for the returning officers in the nine by-elections. The returning officers reported a total of 15 424 additions, 10 931 moves within the electoral districts, 8 492 removals and 10 289 corrections, including persons voting under the Special Voting Rules who were added to the lists. This represents 7.2 percent of the 623 802 voters on the preliminary lists.

For the two December 9 by-elections, we conducted a pilot project in targeted revision. New wording on the Canada Customs and Revenue Agency’s (CCRA) income-tax form allows electors to consent to have their names added to the Register. The information we received from the agency indicated that 8 200 persons in both ridings gave their consent. To confirm that they were eligible to vote, before adding them to the Register, we contacted them either by mail or by sending revising agents to visit their homes. We were able to add 25 percent of the names received from the CCRA to the Register as a result of the mailing, and a further 12 percent through the targeted revision, suggesting that the combined approach is relatively effective in confirming potential new electors.

Of the 45 136 revisions performed during the by-elections in all the electoral districts, including voters using the Special Voting Rules, 35 942 took place during the actual revision period. Election officials performed an additional 9 194 revisions as a result of registrations at the polls on election day. The following tables show the details of the revision transactions.



Table 3
Lists of Electors – revision transactions

Berthier–Montcalm*
Revision transactions1 Day 33 to Day 11 Day 10 to Day 6 Election day

Additions
Corrections
Removals
Moves
Total
Preliminary lists 95 391
1 954
1 826
188
952
4 920
Revised lists 97 157
2 717
2 053
237
1 320
6 327
Official lists 97 871
3 273
2 315
258
1 564
7 410
Final lists 98 406

1 Includes electors registered to vote under the Special Voting Rules (members of the Canadian Forces, incarcerated electors, electors temporarily residing outside Canada).

* Information printed in burgundy throughout the report pertains to the December 9, 2002 by-elections.


Bonavista–Trinity–Conception
Revision transactions1 Day 33 to Day 11 Day 10 to Day 6 Election day

Additions
Corrections
Removals
Moves
Total
Preliminary lists 64 769
231
769
241
1 772
3 012
Revised lists 64 759
372
799
254
1 799
3 224
Official lists 64 887
1 210
1 059
292
2 338
4 899
Final lists 65 687

1 Includes electors registered to vote under the Special Voting Rules (members of the Canadian Forces, incarcerated electors, electors temporarily residing outside Canada).


Calgary Southwest
Revision transactions1 Day 33 to Day 11 Day 10 to Day 6 Election day

Additions
Corrections
Removals
Moves
Total
Preliminary lists 80 232
934
1 091
1 512
308
3 845
Revised lists 79 654
1 071
1 164
1 600
361
4 196
Official lists 79 703
1 770
1 271
1 642
531
5 214
Final lists 80 360

1 Includes electors registered to vote under the Special Voting Rules (members of the Canadian Forces, incarcerated electors, electors temporarily residing outside Canada).


Gander–Grand Falls
Revision transactions1 Day 33 to Day 11 Day 10 to Day 6 Election day

Additions
Corrections
Removals
Moves
Total
Preliminary lists 54 556
388
502
441
546
1 877
Revised lists 54 503
460
534
494
588
2 076
Official lists 54 522
1 213
819
509
1 097
3 638
Final lists 55 260

1 Includes electors registered to vote under the Special Voting Rules (members of the Canadian Forces, incarcerated electors, electors temporarily residing outside Canada).


Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay*
Revision transactions1 Day 33 to Day 11 Day 10 to Day 6 Election day

Additions
Corrections
Removals
Moves
Total
Preliminary lists 51 641
1 271
485
364
1 590
3 710
Revised lists 52 548
1 477
516
470
1 616
4 079
Official lists 52 648
1 792
536
470
1 714
4 512
Final lists 52 963

1 Includes electors registered to vote under the Special Voting Rules (members of the Canadian Forces, incarcerated electors, electors temporarily residing outside Canada).

* Information printed in burgundy throughout the report pertains to the December 9, 2002 by-elections.


Saint Boniface
Revision transactions1 Day 33 to Day 11 Day 10 to Day 6 Election day

Additions
Corrections
Removals
Moves
Total
Preliminary lists 58 019
732
470
648
1 062
2 912
Revised lists 58 103
885
513
729
1 111
3 238
Official lists 58 175
1 363
593
729
1 265
3 950
Final lists 58 653

1 Includes electors registered to vote under the Special Voting Rules (members of the Canadian Forces, incarcerated electors, electors temporarily residing outside Canada).


Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel
Revision transactions1 Day 33 to Day 11 Day 10 to Day 6 Election day

Additions
Corrections
Removals
Moves
Total
Preliminary lists 75 137
402
490
1 195
415
2 502
Revised lists 74 344
459
696
1 257
427
2 839
Official lists 74 339
636
696
1 308
427
3 067
Final lists 74 465

1 Includes electors registered to vote under the Special Voting Rules (members of the Canadian Forces, incarcerated electors, electors temporarily residing outside Canada).


Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles
Revision transactions1 Day 33 to Day 11 Day 10 to Day 6 Election day

Additions
Corrections
Removals
Moves
Total
Preliminary lists 68 617
1 083
1 105
1 646
807
4 641
Revised lists 68 054
1 207
1 144
1 868
858
5 077
Official lists 67 956
1 453
1 172
1 955
917
5 497
Final lists 68 115

1 Includes electors registered to vote under the Special Voting Rules (members of the Canadian Forces, incarcerated electors, electors temporarily residing outside Canada).


Windsor West
Revision transactions1 Day 33 to Day 11 Day 10 to Day 6 Election day

Additions
Corrections
Removals
Moves
Total
Preliminary lists 75 440
1 132
1 532
1 184
708
4 556
Revised lists 75 388
1 325
1 586
1 231
744
4 886
Official lists 75 534
2 716
1 828
1 331
1 078
6 953
Final lists 76 825

1 Includes electors registered to vote under the Special Voting Rules (members of the Canadian Forces, incarcerated electors, electors temporarily residing outside Canada).




Voting in the by-elections

In the nine by-elections, 198 064 of the 630 834 electors cast their ballots, for an average turnout of 31.4 percent.

For those unable to vote on election day in the May by-elections, advance polls were held on May 3, 4 and 6 from noon until 8:00 p.m. Most people voted on election day, May 13, at one of the 1 437 polling stations located throughout the electoral districts. All polling stations in Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel, Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles and Windsor West were open for 12 hours, from 9:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. The polling stations in Bonavista–Trinity–Conception, Gander–Grand Falls and Saint Boniface were open for 12 hours from 8:30 a.m. to 8:30 p.m., local time. The polling stations in Calgary Southwest were open for the 12 hours from 7:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m., local time.

In the December by-elections, advance polls were held from noon to 8:00 p.m. on November 29 and 30 and December 2. Most voted on election day, December 9, at one of 424 polling stations. In accordance with section 131 of the Canada Elections Act, the hours of voting were from 8:30 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. because both by-elections were held on the same day and in the same time zone. All polling stations in the two electoral districts were open for 12 hours on election day.

Each of the 589 polling sites in the nine by-elections provided level access. Table 4 shows the details of the polling station sites for both sets of by-elections, and table 5 shows how many and what kind of polling stations were available in each electoral district. In total, the returning officers maintained 1 954 polling stations at the 589 sites.



Table 4
Location of polling sites
Place Berthier–Montcalm Bonavista–Trinity–Conception Calgary Southwest Gander–Grand Falls Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay Saint Boniface Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel Verdun–Saint-Henri–
Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles
Windsor West Totals
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
Seniors' Residence 10 17.24 14 8.48 7 17.95 0 0.00 20 28.57 12 27.91 2 8.70 7 21.88 12 18.18 84 14.26
Community Centre 18 31.03 68 41.21 0 0.00 29 30.85 16 22.86 4 9.30 0 0.00 11 34.38 8 12.12 154 26.15
Church Hall 1 1.72 51 30.91 2 5.13 14 14.89 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 8 12.12 76 12.90
Recreation Centre 2 3.45 8 4.85 0 0.00 6 6.38 3 4.29 0 0.00 1 4.35 0 0.00 0 0.00 20 3.40
Commercial Site 2 3.45 1 0.61 0 0.00 1 1.06 4 5.71 1 2.33 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 1.52 10 1.70
Educational 4 6.90 1 0.61 27 69.23 7 7.45 0 0.00 24 55.81 19 82.61 3 9.38 18 27.27 103 17.49
Fire Hall 0 0.00 7 4.24 0 0.00 13 13.83 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 20 3.40
Hospital 1 1.72 0 0.00 1 2.56 1 1.06 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 6.25 2 3.03 7 1.19
Royal Canadian Legion 0 0.00 2 1.21 0 0.00 1 1.06 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.13 1 1.52 5 0.85
Municipal or Township Hall 17 29.31 10 6.06 0 0.00 18 19.15 11 15.71 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 3.03 58 9.85
Private Home 0 0.00 1 0.61 0 0.00 2 2.13 0 0.00 2 4.65 1 4.35 8 25.00 14 21.21 28 4.73
Apartment Building 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 17.14 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 2.04
Other 3 5.17 2 1.21 2 5.13 2 2.13 3 4.29 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 2.04
Total 58 100 165 100 39 100 94 100 70 100 43 100 23 100 32 100 66 100 589 100

Table 5
Types of polling stations
Electoral district Ordinary Advance Total
Stationary Mobile
Berthier–Montcalm 273 4 12 289
Bonavista–Trinity–Conception 257 7 16 280
Calgary Southwest 214 3 9 226
Gander–Grand Falls 168 4 12 184
Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay 142 5 10 157
Saint Boniface 168 0 7 175
Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel 191 0 8 199
Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles 194 3 10 207
Windsor West 224 4 9 237

Table 6
Polling station accessibility
Electoral district Total number of
polling stations
Accessible
polling stations
Percentage
Berthier–Montcalm 289 289 100%
Bonavista–Trinity–Conception 280 280 100%
Calgary Southwest 226 226 100%
Gander–Grand Falls 184 184 100%
Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay 157 157 100%
Saint Boniface 175 175 100%
Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel 199 199 100%
Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles 207 207 100%
Windsor West 237 237 100%


Special Voting Rules

As is always the case during elections or by-elections, residents of the electoral districts who did not wish to vote at the advance polls or ordinary polls, and residents travelling or temporarily residing outside Canada, could vote by mail-in ballot under the Special Voting Rules. Canadians abroad could obtain information about how to cast their ballots from the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, through its diplomatic missions and consular posts. Members of the Canadian Forces, whether based in Canada or elsewhere, were informed of their voting rights by the Department of National Defence.

Persons in institutions, including those in hospitals and incarcerated electors, could also vote in the by-elections under the Special Voting Rules. Registration and voting in acute-care hospitals took place on May 6 and 7, and on December 2 and 3.

In the May by-elections, only incarcerated electors serving sentences of less than two years in correctional facilities could register and vote. During these by-elections, provincial correctional workers across Ontario were in a labour stoppage situation; voting information and materials could not be disseminated in correctional institutions through a liaison officer, as they would normally have been. The Elizabeth Fry and John Howard Societies provided assistance by distributing information to incarcerated electors when their staff were able to enter correctional institutions.

On October 31, 2002, the Supreme Court of Canada rendered its decision in Sauvé v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer) that s. 51(e) of the Canada Elections Act, now s. 4(c), which limited voting rights for inmates, was in breach of s. 3 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, thus allowing all incarcerated electors to vote in federal elections, by-elections and referendums regardless of the term of their sentences. This meant that for the two December by-elections all eligible electors who were incarcerated could vote.

Table 7 shows the number of registrations for voting by special ballot in each electoral district. The three lists of electors registered under group 1 of the Special Voting Rules are separate from the lists that are revised by the returning officer during an event. The electors registered under group 2 of the Special Voting Rules are also entered on the lists of electors.



Table 7
Registrations under the Special Voting Rules
Categories of electors asking to vote under the Special Voting Rules Number of ballots requested
Berthier–Montcalm Bonavista–Trinity–Conception Calgary Southwest Gander–Grand Falls Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay Saint Boniface Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel Verdun–Saint-Henri–
Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles
Windsor West Total
Group 11                    
Members of the Canadian Forces 175 524 128 473 221 106 76 65 119 1 887
Incarcerated electors* 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 9
Electors temporarily residing outside Canada 12 7 87 6 2 17 12 37 46 236
Group 1 subtotal 188 533 215 480 225 123 88 103 167 2 122
                     
Group 22                    
Electors temporarily outside their electoral districts 36 26 4 12 18 26 3 4 2 131
Electors voting in their electoral districts 88 282 205 153 300 331 88 275 191 1 913
Group 2 subtotal 124 308 209 165 318 357 91 279 193 2 044
                     
Total number of registrations for people voting by special ballot 312 841 424 645 543 480 179 382 360 4 166

1 The three categories of electors registered under group 1 of the Special Voting Rules are separate from the lists that are revised by the returning officer during an event.

2 The categories of electors registered under group 2 of the Special Voting Rules are included on the local lists of electors.

* During the May 13, 2002 by-elections, only those otherwise eligible inmates who were serving a sentence of less than two years were permitted to vote. As a result of the Supreme Court of Canada decision of October 31, 2002 in Sauvé v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer), all otherwise eligible incarcerated individuals were permitted to vote in the December 9 by-elections.



Ballots cast and elector turnout

Table 8 gives statistics on the number of ballots cast in each electoral district, and table 9 compares the elector turnout in the by-elections with that in the November 27, 2000, general election.

Table 8
Statistics on the number of ballots cast and elector turnout in the by-elections
Electoral district Number of
electors on
final lists
Ordinary
polls
Advance
polls
Special
Voting
Rules
Total
votes
cast
Rejected
ballots
Total
valid
votes
Elector
turnout
%
Berthier–Montcalm 98 406 25 847 2 169 143 28 159 716 27 443 28.6
Bonavista–Trinity–Conception 65 687 23 821 956 352 25 129 184 24 945 38.2
Calgary Southwest 80 360 17 406 873 240 18 519 98 18 421 23.0
Gander–Grand Falls 55 260 18 191 797 222 19 220 90 19 120 34.8
Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay 52 963 17 201 1 286 344 18 831 335 18 496 35.6
Saint Boniface 58 653 19 216 1 188 371 20 775 82 20 693 35.4
Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel 74 465 15 615 1 350 97 17 062 213 16 849 22.9
Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–
Pointe Saint-Charles
68 115 15 078 1 960 295 17 333 280 17 053 25.4
Windsor West 76 825 30 829 2 005 212 33 046 200 32 846 43.0

Table 9
Elector turnout in the by-elections and the 2000 general election
Electoral district By-election
%
General election
%
Berthier–Montcalm 28.6 61.1
Bonavista–Trinity–Conception 38.2 61.2
Calgary Southwest 23.0 62.9
Gander–Grand Falls 34.8 50.8
Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay 35.6 62.8
Saint Boniface 35.4 64.2
Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel 22.9 63.6
Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–Pointe Saint-Charles 25.4 59.0
Windsor West 43.0 50.0


The candidates and by-election results

The deadline for nominating candidates for the May 13 by-elections was 2:00 p.m. on April 22. The deadline for withdrawal or making corrections to the candidate’s name, address or occupation set out on the nomination papers was 5:00 p.m. on the same day. Those deadlines for the December 9 by-elections occurred at the same hours on November 18.

Table 10 below identifies the political affiliation of each candidate, the number of valid votes obtained by each candidate, and the proportion of valid votes that the candidate received. An *asterisk by the name of a candidate indicates that he or she was elected.

We posted candidates’ names on our Web site as they were confirmed, and posted the official lists once nominations closed. We also transmitted the lists of official candidates to Canadian diplomatic missions and consular posts through the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and to Canadian Forces bases through the Department of National Defence.



Table 10
Statistics on valid votes obtained, by candidate
Candidate Political affiliation Valid votes
obtained
Percentage of
valid votes
Berthier–Montcalm
Roger Gaudet*
Richard Giroux
Richard Lafleur
Réal Naud
François Rivest
Total

Bloc Québécois
Liberal Party of Canada
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance
New Democratic Party

13 747
11 646
598
475
977
27 443

50.09
42.43
2.17
1.73
3.56
99.98
Bonavista–Trinity–Conception
Christopher John Bradshaw
Michelle Brazil
John R. Efford*
Jim Gill
Brent Rockwood
David Tulett
Total

The Green Party of Canada
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
Liberal Party of Canada
New Democratic Party
No Affiliation
Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance

139
5 281
18 665
588
106
166
24 945

0.55
21.17
74.82
2.35
0.42
0.66
99.97
Calgary Southwest
Gordon Barrett
Ron Gray
Stephen Joseph Harper*
James S. Kohut
Bill Phipps
Total

Independent
Christian Heritage Party
Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance
The Green Party of Canada
New Democratic Party

428
320
13 200
660
3 813
18 421

2.32
1.73
71.65
3.58
20.69
99.97
Gander–Grand Falls
Rex Barnes*
Garry Hartle
John Lannon
Beaton Tulk
Total

Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance
New Democratic Party
Liberal Party of Canada

9 273
422
873
8 552
19 120

48.49
2.20
4.56
44.72
99.97
Lac-Saint-Jean–Saguenay
Yanick Auer
Alcide Boudreault
Sébastien Gagnon*
Clermont Gauthier
Richard Harvey
Gilles Lavoie
Gilbert Tremblay
Total

New Democratic Party
Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance
Bloc Québécois
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
Independent
No Affiliation
Liberal Party of Canada

267
290
8 912
434
467
532
7 594
18 496

1.44
1.56
48.18
2.34
2.52
2.87
41.05
99.96
Saint Boniface
Chris Buors
Jean-Paul Kabashiki
John Edmund Parry
Mike Reilly
Denis Simard
Raymond Simard*
Total

Marijuana Party
Christian Heritage Party
New Democratic Party
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance
Liberal Party of Canada

435
210
3 106
3 583
4 497
8 862
20 693

2.10
1.01
15.00
17.31
21.73
42.82
99.97
Saint-Léonard–Saint-Michel
Normand Caplette
Antonio Cordeiro
Umberto Di Genova
Massimo Pacetti*
Marc-Boris St-Maurice
Total

New Democratic Party
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
Bloc Québécois
Liberal Party of Canada
Marijuana Party

447
634
1 495
14 076
197
16 849

2.65
3.76
8.87
83.54
1.16
99.98
Verdun–Saint-Henri–Saint-Paul–
Pointe Saint-Charles

Bernard Côté
Joe De Santis
Liza Frulla*
Sonia Goulet
Robert Lindblad
Matthew McLauchlin
Total


Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance
Liberal Party of Canada
Bloc Québécois
No Affiliation
New Democratic Party


735
241
10 897
4 432
113
635
17 053


4.31
1.41
63.90
25.98
0.66
3.72
99.98
Windsor West
Rick Fuschi
Chris Holt
Allan James
Brian Masse*
Richard Pollock
Ian West
Total

Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance
The Green Party of Canada
Christian Heritage Party
New Democratic Party
Liberal Party of Canada
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada

5 420
655
249
14 021
11 544
957
32 846

16.50
1.99
0.75
42.68
35.14
2.91
99.97


On election night, each returning officer’s Event Results System was linked to our central computer. As votes were counted locally, the numbers were transmitted to the computer server in Ottawa for posting on the Web site. Ballots cast at the by-elections under the Special Voting Rules by incarcerated and Canadian Forces electors, and other Canadians voting from outside their ridings, were counted at Elections Canada headquarters during the week before election day and on election night. In the past, we sent Special Voting Rules results by fax to the appropriate returning officer, who had the figures typed into his or her local computer system. In the May by-elections, for the first time we sent the results to each returning officer electronically. The results then automatically became part of the Event Results System, allowing their release with all other results already received from local polling stations. We used the same system in the December by-elections.


Party standings after the by-elections

Table 11 shows the House of Commons representation by province, with 297 members of registered political parties and three independent members, as of December 31, 2002. After the December by-elections, one seat in the House of Commons remained vacant following the resignation on October 11, 2002, of John Richardson, the Liberal Party member for Perth–Middlesex. By December 31, 2002, the Governor in Council had not yet decided on a date for a by-election.

Table 11
Standing of parties in the House of Commons, December 31, 2002
Province Bloc
Québécois
Canadian
Alliance
Liberal N.D.P. Progressive
Conservative
Independent Vacant Total
British Columbia
Alberta
Saskatchewan
Manitoba
Ontario
Quebec
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
Prince Edward Island
Newfoundland and Labrador
Yukon
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Total





37







37
26
23
9
3
2








63
6
2
2
5
98
35
6
4
4
4
1
1
1
169
2

2
4
2

1
3





14

1

2

1
3
4

3



14


1


2







3




1








1
34
26
14
14
103
75
10
11
4
7
1
1
1
301


Special adaptations

The Canada Elections Act allows the Chief Electoral Officer to adapt any provision of the Act during an election period if an emergency, an unusual or unforeseen circumstance or an error makes it necessary. During the by-elections, the Chief Electoral Officer used his authority four times to adapt the Act:


Enforcement

The Commissioner of Canada Elections received 18 complaints after the by-elections on May 13 (of which 15 have been resolved and three are still being investigated), and one complaint after the by-elections of December 9, which has been resolved. Although some offences occurred during the election period, others can occur months after a by-election. The Commissioner may receive additional complaints following the deadline for submitting candidates’ and third parties’ financial returns, four months after election day.


Election financing

Candidates’ election expenses

Under the Canada Elections Act, candidates are required to file an election expenses return within four months of election day. Elections Canada examines the returns for compliance purposes, and to determine the amount of reimbursement owed to qualified candidates. By the end of the year, we finished reviewing financial returns from the 38 candidates who ran for office in the seven May 13 by-elections. We will review the returns from candidates in the two December 9 by-elections following the deadline for filing the returns.