Secondary menu

Report of the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada Following the November 27, 2006, By-elections Held in London North Centre and Repentigny


The 2006 By-elections

Launch of the by-elections

On August 28, 2006, Benoît Sauvageau, the Bloc Québécois Member of Parliament for Repentigny since October 25, 1993, died, leaving his seat vacant.

On September 20, 2006, the Honourable Joseph Frank Fontana, the Liberal Party of Canada Member of Parliament for London North Centre since November 21, 1988, resigned, creating a second vacancy.

Writs were issued on October 22, 2006, directing the returning officers in the two ridings to conduct by-elections on November 27, 2006.

At that time, the seat distribution in the House of Commons was: Conservative Party of Canada – 124 seats; Liberal Party of Canada – 101 seats; Bloc Québécois – 50 seats; New Democratic Party – 29 seats; Independent – 2 seats; and vacant – 2 seats.

The boundaries of the electoral districts of London North Centre and Repentigny were unchanged from those in effect for the 2006 federal general election. These were the boundaries defined in the Representation Order of 2003, issued in accordance with the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act.

Election materials required for the by-elections were shipped to returning officers when the writs were issued, followed by computer equipment on October 24. On October 30, the ballot paper was shipped directly to the printers identified by the returning officers.

Table 1
Returning officers
Electoral district Name Occupation Place of residence
London North Centre Donna Kelly University professor London
Repentigny Michel Carignan Legal Repentigny

Milestones of the electoral process

Table 2 provides an overview of milestones in the process from the issue of the writs to their return for the by-elections held in 2006.

Table 2
Key dates for the by-elections in London North Centre and Repentigny
Date Election calendar day Event
October 22 Day 36 Issue of the writs; notice to persons entitled to recommend revising agents; voting by special ballot begins

Office of the returning officer for Repentigny opens to the public
October 23 Day 35 Office of the returning officer for London North Centre opens to the public
October 25 Day 33 Revision of lists of electors begins
October 26 Day 32 Notice of Election published; candidates may file nominations
October 29 Day 29 Targeted revision begins
October 30 Day 28 Preliminary election expenses spending limits for candidates released
November 1, 2 and 3 Days 26, 25 and 24 Voter information cards mailed to all registered electors
November 6 Day 21 (2:00 p.m.) Nominations for candidates close
November 8 Day 19 List of confirmed candidates released
November 8, 9 and 10 Days 19, 18 and 17 Reminder cards mailed
November 16 Day 11 Revised lists of electors distributed
November 17, 18 and 20 Days 10, 9 and 7 Advance voting
November 19 Day 8 Registration and voting begin in acute care hospitals
November 21 Day 6 Revision and special ballot registration end; registration and voting end in acute care hospitals

Final election expenses spending limits for candidates released
November 24 Day 3 Official lists of electors distributed to candidates
November 27 Day 0 Election day; preliminary results by electoral district posted on the Elections Canada Web site
November 28 Day –1 Validation of results; validated results posted on the Elections Canada Web site
December 5 Day –8 Writs returned

Communicating with electors

As in all electoral events, an important part of Elections Canada's task in a by-election is to generate awareness – among the general public (especially young electors), political parties, candidates and the media – of the by-election and the key dates in the election period.

For the November 27, 2006, by-elections, the primary tool for communicating with the general public was the voter information card. Between November 1 and 3, it was sent to all electors registered on the preliminary lists. It provided details on when and where to vote, as well as alternative voting methods for electors unable or unwilling to vote at their polling stations on election day. Between November 8 and 10, Elections Canada followed up with reminder cards repeating the same information.

Our print and radio advertising campaign had two phases. The first phase notified electors that they should have received a voter information card, explained to electors who had not received the card how to register and informed electors how to have erroneous information corrected. These ads also included details on voter eligibility, advance voting and the special ballot. The second phase reminded electors of election day. Between November 10 and 17, mainstream radio stations in Repentigny ran repeated 60-second ads on the voter information card. In London North Centre, this phase of the campaign was delayed until after London's municipal election had been held on November 13 (Day 14) to avoid confusing electors. In the last five days of the by-election campaigns, ads reminding electors of election day were broadcast on morning radio shows.

As in other recent electoral events, Elections Canada made special outreach efforts to encourage participation by those who may experience barriers to voting, including youth, Aboriginal people, ethnocultural groups and homeless electors. In London North Centre, community relations officers for youth, ethnocultural populations and the homeless were hired. In Repentigny, a community relations officer for youth was hired. Information kits were sent to the N'Amerind Friendship Centre in London and to organizations for persons with special needs in both ridings.

Youth outreach

Youth outreach was particularly important in London North Centre because the University of Western Ontario and its affiliated colleges occupy a large proportion of the electoral district. Of Western's 30,000 undergraduate and graduate students, more than 4,000 live on campus; many others live off campus but within the electoral district. This situation required extra efforts to ensure that young electors were aware of the eligibility requirements for voting and had the opportunity to vote. Targeted revision desks were established in student residences, and nine polling stations were set up on campus. To advise students living near the campus of their options, information kiosks were set up in the University Community Centre, and advertisements were placed in three student newspapers. The community relations officers also visited classes and contacted student associations.

To reach young people not attending university and raise awareness among high school students, the community relations officers contacted school boards and youth employment services, and placed posters in high schools and youth drop-in centres.

Repentigny had a similar situation, with a CEGEP located in the electoral district. The community relations officer for the riding had to develop innovative ways of reaching students of voting age, including meeting with them in cafeterias during lunch breaks. Teachers at both the CEGEP and the local high schools were open to receiving Elections Canada material and involving youth in the electoral process.

Ethnocultural outreach

In London North Centre, the ethnocultural community relations officer contacted community agencies, recruited staff and made presentations to English as a Second Language classes. Ads in Spanish, Korean and Chinese were placed in weekly newspapers serving those language groups. Community associations distributed Elections Canada's voter information guide in multiple languages to their members.

Homeless outreach

In London North Centre, the community relations officer for the homeless drew on experience gained during the 2006 general election to inform homeless electors about the federal by-election and differentiate this electoral event from the municipal election campaign being conducted at the same time.

Media relations

To ensure that all media outlets were well informed of the by-elections, Elections Canada distributed a media information kit containing the launch news release, profiles of the electoral districts, a calendar of key dates and backgrounders on topics ranging from the electoral process to the special ballot and the National Register of Electors. The kit also included information for parties and candidates regarding contributions and expenses. During the campaigns, we distributed 16 news releases; these highlighted key dates, including election day, and clarified what the media could and could not report on that day. All news releases were posted in the Media section of the Elections Canada Web site.

Elections Canada Web site

A special section for each by-election was established on the Elections Canada Web site. The section featured voter information about the electoral district, as well as the list of confirmed candidates, the electoral district map, the address and telephone number of the returning officer and general information on the voting process – in particular, voting by special ballot. The two sections attracted a total of 12,105 visits during the event. Another Web-based feature was the Voter Information Service, used since the 2004 general election (in a general election, the service is also speech-enabled). The service provided a variety of information, including the contents of the voter information card. On election night, results were posted on the Web site as they became available. The number of visits to the Election Night Results Web application was a record 14,151, up significantly from the previous by-election in May 2005.

Public enquiries

Elections Canada's Enquiries Unit can be reached through a toll-free number, or a toll-free TTY number for people who are deaf or hard of hearing. During the election period, the unit's bilingual staff fielded some 92 calls and 23 e-mail messages from the public, and provided documentation about the electoral process.

Communicating with candidates, official agents and auditors

For the London North Centre and Repentigny by-elections, the returning officers supplied various materials to candidates, official agents and auditors.

The returning officers met with the parties' representatives to make sure that they had all received the same information. These meetings provided an opportunity for explanations and discussions regarding voting procedures, election day rules and the election officer positions for which candidates and parties could recommend applicants. Returning officers were also asked to discuss with the candidates and/or their representatives a number of new electoral initiatives being tested by Elections Canada during the by-elections.

Revising the lists of electors

Quality estimates for London North Centre at the beginning of the by-election indicated that 89 percent of eligible electors were on the preliminary list of electors and that 77 percent of eligible electors were on the list and at the correct address as of October 1, 2006. As part of the targeted revision drive, revising agents visited 17,334 addresses identified by the returning officer. These addresses were located in high mobility areas, new residential developments, chronic care facilities and university residences. Overall, the returning officer undertook 9,488 registration transactions – 2,731 additions and 6,757 address updates. This represents 11 percent of the 89,880 electors registered on the preliminary lists of electors. There were also 6,710 corrections and removals made, bringing the total number of revisions performed during the London North Centre by-election to 16,198. Three electors were added to the list of electors voting outside Canada, Canadian Forces electors and incarcerated electors.

Some 6,521 registrations were performed during the revision period, and the remaining 2,967 were made on election day. As a result of the revision period and polling day registrations, it is estimated that the final lists of electors included 92 percent of eligible electors, with 83 percent of them at the correct address as of December 1, 2006.

In Repentigny, quality estimates at the beginning of the by-election showed that 96 percent of eligible electors were on the preliminary list of electors and that 90 percent of eligible electors were on the list and at the correct address as of October 1, 2006. Revising agents visited 3,744 addresses in high mobility areas, new residential developments and chronic care facilities. The returning officer undertook a total of 4,990 registration transactions – 716 additions and 4,274 address updates. This represents 6 percent of the 85,032 electors registered on the preliminary lists of electors. In addition, 2,536 corrections and removals were made, bringing the number of revisions performed during the Repentigny by-election to 7,526. Four electors were added to the list of electors voting outside Canada, Canadian Forces electors and incarcerated electors.

Some 4,589 registrations were performed during the revision period, and the remaining 401 were made on election day. It is estimated that the final lists of electors included 96 percent of eligible electors, with 94 percent at the correct address as of December 1, 2006.

For further information, see Table 3.

Table 3
Lists of electors – revision transactions during the by-elections in London North Centre and Repentigny
Electoral district Electors on the preliminary lists, including Special Voting Rules (SVR) Electors added1 Moves between electoral districts2 Moves within the electoral district3 Other corrections4 Electors removed from lists5 SVR Group 1 updates6 Electors on the final lists
London North Centre
89,880
2,731
4,387
2,370
506
6,204
3
90,797
Repentigny
85,032
716
1,853
2,421
297
2,239
4
85,366
  1. Electors who did not appear on any lists at the beginning of the election and were added during the event.

  2. Electors who appeared on a list at the beginning of the election but who changed their address because of a move to another electoral district during the event.

  3. Electors who appeared on a list at the beginning of the election and changed their address because of a move within the same electoral district during the event. These figures also include administrative changes made by the returning officer to elector records during the event.

  4. Electors who appeared on a list of electors and requested a correction to their name or mailing address during the event.

  5. Electors who appeared on a list of electors but were removed for one of the following reasons: the elector was deceased; the elector requested to be removed; the elector had moved; the elector was unqualified to be on the list (for example, less than 18 years old or a non-citizen); or the elector had a duplicate record on the same list. This figure also reflects elector records removed as a result of elector moves to another electoral district during the event and duplicates removed during the preparation of the final lists of electors.

  6. Indicates the increase in the number of Group 1 electors registered under the Special Voting Rules (Canadian electors temporarily residing outside Canada, Canadian Forces electors and incarcerated electors) during the event.

Voting in the by-elections

In the London North Centre by-election, 38,273 of the 90,797 registered electors cast ballots, for a turnout of 42.2 percent. In comparison, 60,407 of the 91,328 registered electors in the 2006 general election voted, for a turnout of 66.1 percent.

In Repentigny, 31,636 of the 85,366 registered electors cast ballots, a participation rate of 37.1 percent. In the 2006 general election, 56,873 of the 84,312 registered electors voted, a turnout of 67.5 percent.

Ordinary polls and advance polls

In London North Centre, 35,050 people (91.6 percent of those who cast ballots) voted at one of the 240 ordinary polling stations located in 74 polling sites across the electoral district. Each ordinary poll served an average of 146 electors.

In Repentigny, 27,981 people (88.4 percent of those who cast ballots) voted at one of 204 ordinary polling stations located in 33 polling sites. Each ordinary poll served an average of 137 electors.

Under subsections 125(1) and 538(5) of the Canada Elections Act, mobile polling stations are established to collect the votes of seniors or persons with disabilities confined to chronic care facilities. These polling stations are set up in polling divisions with at least two health care institutions. For the by-election in London North Centre, five mobile polling stations served residents of 11 institutions. In Repentigny, two mobile polls collected ballots in six institutions.

In accordance with section 131 of the Act, polling stations were open for 12 hours on election day, from 8:30 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. (Eastern Time).

Electors could also vote at the advance polls, which were open on November 17, 18 and 20 from 12:00 noon to 8:00 p.m. (Eastern Time) at 10 polling locations in London North Centre and 11 in Repentigny. In London North Centre, 2,782 people voted in advance, compared with 5,882 electors in the 2006 general election. In Repentigny, 3,169 electors took advantage of the advance polls, compared with 4,953 in the 2006 general election.

Table 4 shows the details of the polling station sites, and Table 5 shows how many and what kinds of polling stations were available. Table 6 indicates polling station accessibility. In London North Centre, 225 polling stations were established at 87 polling sites, some of which served for both advance and ordinary polls. In Repentigny, 191 polling stations served electors at 40 sites.

Table 4
London North Centre – Types of polling sites*
  Ordinary polling sites Advance polling sites
Facility type No. % No. %
Apartment building
6
8
0
0
Church hall
12
16
4
40
Community centre
21
29
5
50
Educational facility
31
42
1
10
Seniors' residence
4
5
0
0
Total
74
100
10
100


Repentigny – Types of polling sites*
  Ordinary polling sites Advance polling sites
Facility type No. % No. %
Apartment building
2
6
0
0
Church hall
2
6
2
40
Commercial site
3
9
2
40
Community centre
3
9
1
20
Educational facility
23
70
0
0
Total
33
100
5
100

* Because the figures were rounded, there may be some discrepancies in the totals.

Table 5
London North Centre – Types of polling stations
Ordinary Advance Total
Stationary Mobile
235
5
10
250


Repentigny – Types of polling stations
Ordinary Advance Total
Stationary Mobile
202
2
11
215


Table 6
Polling site accessibility
Electoral district Total sites Number accessible Percentage accessible
London North Centre
87
87*
100%
Repentigny
40
40*
100%

* No facility was modified to provide level access.

Special Voting Rules

As in any election, the option of voting by mail-in ballot under the Special Voting Rules (SVR) was available to electors who did not wish to, or could not, vote in advance or at the ordinary polls, as well as electors travelling or temporarily residing outside Canada. Canadians abroad could obtain information about how to cast their ballots by contacting any of the diplomatic missions and consular posts of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, or by visiting the Elections Canada Web site. Members of the Canadian Forces – whether based in Canada or abroad – were informed of their voting rights by the Department of National Defence. When the writs were issued, special ballot voting kits were sent to all Canadian Forces electors and electors residing outside Canada whose names appeared on the lists established for the electoral districts of London North Centre and Repentigny.

To ensure that electors unexpectedly hospitalized in acute care facilities during an election or by-election are able to vote, Elections Canada adopts procedures allowing these electors to register and vote by special ballot. In London North Centre and Repentigny, registration and voting in acute care facilities took place on November 19, 20 and 21, 2006.

The 2002 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Sauvé v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer) determined that the former paragraph 51(e), now paragraph 4(c), of the Canada Elections Act limiting inmates' right to vote contravened section 3 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. As a result of this decision, all incarcerated electors may now vote in federal elections regardless of the length of the term they are serving. In the London North Centre and Repentigny by-elections, all eligible electors incarcerated in a correctional institution or federal penitentiary could vote by special ballot in accordance with the relevant provisions. To be eligible, electors had to have their place of ordinary residence in the electoral district of London North Centre or Repentigny.

In the past, Elections Canada in Ottawa faxed the lists of national and international electors to returning officers once during the third week and again during the fifth week of the 36-day electoral calendar. As a pilot project during the 2006 by-elections, the lists were sent electronically. The list of national electors was provided twice weekly – on Tuesday and Friday – starting from the third week. As in the past, the list of international electors was available during the third and fifth weeks. The initiative was successful: it reduced the time required to produce and send the lists, and it gave returning officers greater access to the lists and allowed them to identify electors who had previously registered, thereby lessening the risk of duplicate registrations. Elections Canada will use this method of distributing lists of national and international electors in future events.

In previous elections, the special ballot coordinator had sole responsibility for managing the registration process for voting by special ballot in the returning office. As a pilot project the agency introduced new SVR procedures during the Repentigny by-election, allowing the special ballot coordinator and the revising agent to share the task of SVR registration. Under the new procedures, the revising agent validated the elector's proof of identity and completed form, and then directed the elector to the special ballot coordinator to receive a special ballot voting kit. The project proved successful, and the amended procedures will be implemented in future events.

Table 7 shows the number of registrations for voting by special ballot in the by-elections, by group and category.

Table 7
Registrations under the Special Voting Rules during the by-elections held in November 2006 in London North Centre and Repentigny
Groups and categories of electors under the Special Voting Rules Number of ballots issued
London North Centre Repentigny
Group 1*
  Members of the Canadian Forces
253
112
  Incarcerated electors
1
2
  Electors temporarily residing outside Canada
71
13
    Group 1 subtotal
325
127
Group 2**
  Electors temporarily outside their electoral district
36
39
  Electors voting in their electoral district
371
437
    Group 2 subtotal
407
476
Total number of registrations for electors voting by special ballot
732
603

* Electors in the three categories registered under Group 1 of the Special Voting Rules are not included in the local lists that are revised by the returning officer during an event.

** Electors in the categories registered under Group 2 of the Special Voting Rules are included in the local lists of electors.

Final lists of electors

On the basis of the 2001 Census, the population of London North Centre was 107,672 and that of Repentigny was 103,977. There were 89,880 names on the preliminary lists of electors for London North Centre and 85,032 on the preliminary lists for Repentigny. The lists were produced using information from the National Register of Electors. During the revision period (October 29 to November 21, 2006), 16,198 electors were registered in London North Centre and 7,526 in Repentigny. These numbers include individuals who already appeared on the lists but had changed addresses.

The final lists of electors (prepared after election day under section 109 of the Canada Elections Act) included 90,797 people in London North Centre and 85,366 in Repentigny. Within those totals were electors who registered on election day – 2,967 in London North Centre and 401 in Repentigny.

Table 8 presents statistics on the number of ballots. Table 9 compares voter turnout in the 2006 by-elections with turnout in the 2006 general election.

Table 8
Statistics on the number of ballots cast, by voting method and voter turnout, in the London North Centre and Repentigny by-elections*

London North Centre
Number of electors on final lists Ordinary polls Advance voting Special Voting
Rules ballots
Rejected ballots Total valid votes Total votes cast Voter turnout
90,797
35,050**
91.6%
2,782
7.3%
441
1.2%
174
0.5%
38,099
99.5%
38,273
42.2%


Repentigny
Number of electors on final lists Ordinary polls Advance voting Special Voting
Rules ballots
Rejected ballots Total valid votes Total votes cast Voter turnout
85,366
27,981**
88.4%
3,169
10.0%
486
1.5%
493
1.6%
31,143
98.4%
31,636
37.1%

* Because the figures were rounded, there may be some discrepancies in the totals.

** Includes electors who voted at a mobile poll.

Table 9
Voter turnout in the London North Centre and Repentigny by-elections
Electoral district 2006 by-elections 2006 general election
London North Centre
42.2%
66.1%
Repentigny
37.1%
67.5%

Testing new initiatives

Several other new initiatives designed to improve Canada's electoral process were tested during the by-elections in London North Centre and Repentigny.

The candidates

From October 26, 2006, when the returning officers published the Notice of Election, the candidates in the by-elections had until 2:00 p.m. on November 6, 2006, to file their nomination papers. The candidates had until 5:00 p.m. on the same day to withdraw or make corrections to the name, address or occupation indicated on the nomination papers.

In London North Centre, six registered parties nominated candidates: the Canadian Action Party, the Conservative Party of Canada, the Green Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada, the New Democratic Party and the Progressive Canadian Party. One candidate ran as an independent. None of the candidates withdrew before the deadline.

In Repentigny, five registered parties nominated candidates: the Bloc Québécois, the Canadian Action Party, the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada and the New Democratic Party. Two candidates ran as independents. None of the candidates withdrew. The nomination of a candidate for the Green Party of Canada could not be accepted because the potential candidate arrived at the returning office shortly before the deadline and did not have the necessary documents required by the Canada Elections Act.

Elections Canada posted the names of candidates on its Web site as they were confirmed, and posted the final lists of confirmed candidates once nominations closed. To ensure that Canadians abroad and members of the Canadian Forces could exercise their right to vote, the agency also transmitted the lists of official candidates to Canadian diplomatic missions and consular posts through the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and to Canadian Forces bases through the Department of National Defence.

By-election results

On election night, each returning officer's Event Results System was linked to Elections Canada's central computer. As votes were counted, the numbers were transmitted to the server in Ottawa for posting on the Elections Canada Web site. Ballots cast under the SVR by incarcerated and Canadian Forces electors, and by Canadians voting from outside the riding, were counted at Elections Canada in Ottawa during the week before election day and on election night.

In London North Centre, Glen Pearson, the Liberal Party of Canada candidate, was elected. Bloc Québécois candidate Raymond Gravel was elected in Repentigny.

Table 10 identifies the political affiliation of each candidate, and the number and proportion of valid votes obtained by each.

Table 10
Statistics on valid votes obtained, by candidate
Candidate Political affiliation Place of residence Occupation Valid votes obtained Percentage of valid votes (%)
London North Centre
Arlow, Will Canadian Action Party Straffordville Businessman
53
0.14
Ede, Robert Independent Thornhill Realtor
78
0.2
Haskett, Dianne Conservative Party of Canada London Lawyer
9,327
24.48
Hunter, Steve Progressive Canadian Party London Carpenter
146
0.38
May, Elizabeth Green Party of Canada Ottawa Federal political party leader
9,845
25.84
Pearson, Glen Liberal Party of Canada London Firefighter
13,285
34.87
Walker, Megan New Democratic Party London Executive director, NGO
5,365
14.08
Total
38,099
99.99
Repentigny
Baig, Mahmood Raza Canadian Action Party Montréal Journalist
91
0.29
Bellemare, Réjean New Democratic Party Le Gardeur Economist
2,187
7.02
Bourgon, Stéphane Conservative Party of Canada Repentigny Lawyer
5,822
18.69
Gravel, Raymond Bloc Québécois La Plaine Priest
20,635
66.26
Leduc, Jocelyne Independent Saint-Hippolyte Student
390
1.25
Millette, Régent Independent Laval Retired
78
0.25
Turenne, Christian Liberal Party of Canada Repentigny Financial advisor
1,940
6.23
Total
31,143
99.99

Special adaptations

In accordance with subsections 17(1) and 178(2) of the Canada Elections Act, the Chief Electoral Officer may adapt any provision of the Act to deal with an emergency, an error, or an unusual or unforeseen circumstance. During the 2006 by-elections in London North Centre and Repentigny, the Chief Electoral Officer used his authority under these provisions on five occasions.

The Act prohibits voting by prisoners in federal institutions (that is, those serving sentences of two years or more), and therefore does not specify a procedure for such prisoners to vote. Since the 2002 decision of the Supreme Court of Canada in Sauvé v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer), which struck down the prohibition, the Act has had to be adapted in federal elections or by-elections to extend the statutory process for voting by SVR in provincial institutions and make it applicable to federal prisoners.

A growing number of electors choose to vote at advance polls, but the Act provides for fewer election officers at those polls than at ordinary polls on election day. The Act was therefore adapted to enable returning officers to appoint additional poll clerks, information officers, registration officers and central poll supervisors to assist at the advance polling stations.

The collection of voter information cards at the entrance to polling places by information officers necessitated an adaptation because the Act permits the appointment of information officers only at central polling places, not at locations with only one polling station.

Special ballots were mistakenly given to three people who did not reside in the electoral districts of London North Centre and Repentigny, and the Special Voting Rules as Adapted for the Purposes of a By-election did not provide for a special ballot officer to set aside an outer envelope in such a case. Consequently, the rules were adapted to permit a special ballot officer to set aside an outer envelope if he or she ascertained that a special ballot had been given in error to an individual who did not reside in the electoral district in which the by-election was held.

A mobile polling station in London North Centre was established to receive electors at a care facility between 8:30 and 11:30 a.m. before moving to other institutions. One elector registered to vote at that location could not vote during those three hours. The Act was adapted to permit the returning officer or assistant returning officer to issue a transfer certificate to that elector, allowing him to vote at a nearby polling station.

Enforcement of the Canada Elections Act

The Commissioner of Canada Elections received two complaints stemming from the by-elections in London North Centre and Repentigny. Both have been resolved.

Candidates' election expenses

Under the Canada Elections Act, candidates are required to file an election expenses return within four months of election day. Elections Canada examines the returns for compliance purposes, as well as to determine the amount of reimbursement owed to qualified candidates. The candidates in the November 27, 2006, by-elections in London North Centre and Repentigny are required to file their returns by March 27, 2007. The information in the returns will be published as filed on the Elections Canada Web site shortly after they are submitted.