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43rd General Election Evaluations

Retrospective Report – Winter 2021

The Retrospective Report provides a thorough analysis of the administration of the 43rd general election informed by a variety of surveys with electors, candidates and regulated entities as well as stakeholder feedback sessions.

The following surveys, studies and post-mortems were conducted by or on behalf of Elections Canada to help assess the 43rd general election and to help inform the Chief Electoral Officer's Recommendations Report in the winter of 2021. Elections Canada is making the results public as they become available.

Electors

Voter Turnout by Sex and Age

See the turnout results broken down by sex and age groups. Data are also broken down by province and territory.

On-Reserve Voter Turnout

See the turnout results for electors living on reserve.

National Electors Study

Methodological report

The National Electors Study was administered to over nearly 52,000 eligible Canadian electors. The survey was conducted in three waves. The three phases assessed different things: electors’ expectations, knowledge and intentions ahead of the general election; their experience of the election campaign and exposure to Elections Canada’s voter information campaign; and their experience and satisfaction with Elections Canada’s services and with the overall administration of the election.

  • Report on Voter Experience

    This report presents the survey results on electors' perspectives on the administration of the 43rd general election, in terms of their: perceptions and experiences with registration and voter identification; expectations and experiences with voting; experiences and satisfaction with Elections Canada services; and overall confidence in Elections Canada and trust in the fair administration of the election.

  • Report on the Voter Information Campaign and Elector Awareness

    This evaluation uses data from the National Electors Study to assess the reach and effectiveness of the Voter Information Campaign and to evaluate its design, implementation and impact on Canadian electors' knowledge of both the registration and voting process from the pre-writ period to the end of the election.

  • Report on Policy and Civic Engagement Issues

    This report draws upon data from the National Electors Study to illustrate electors' views on election-related policy issues. This includes themes associated with: political financing and government advertising, civic engagement and participation in politics, voting technology, protection of personal information, political communication, and concerns with electoral interference and disinformation.

Turnout and Reasons for Not Voting During the 43rd General Election: Results from Labour Force Survey

For the third time following a general election, Elections Canada partnered with Statistics Canada to include questions on voter participation in the Labour Force Survey. Respondents were asked whether they voted and their reasons for not voting.

Survey of Special Ballot Voters

Electors who voted by special ballot were asked questions about: their awareness of the option to vote by special ballot; where they learned about this voting method; their experience voting by special ballot; and their reason for voting by special ballot.

Survey of Campus Electors

Electors who had an opportunity to vote by special ballot at a campus office as part of the Vote on Campus initiative were asked questions about: their awareness of the option; how they found out about it; and their reasons for not voting on campus (if applicable).

Election Officers and Administrators

Survey of Election Officers

Election officers, such as poll workers and recruitment officers, who worked in the 43rd general election were asked about their: attitudes toward Elections Canada and its service model; level of preparation and training; satisfaction with Elections Canada’s services and materials; attitudes toward technology at the polls; work experience in other jurisdictions; working conditions; and process of recruitment.

Survey of Election Administrators

Field liaison officers, returning officers, and assistant returning officers who worked in the 43rd general election were asked questions regarding their: use and comfort with technology and social media; understanding of the code of conduct for election administrators; use of Elections Canada headquarters’ social media products; engagement with groups of interest; awareness of 2019 communications products; and needs for the next general election.

Returning Officers' Report on Proceedings

Final report

Returning officers who worked in the 43rd general election were asked questions regarding their experiences, including what worked well and where improvements can be made to their administrative responsibilities.

Stakeholders

Survey of Candidates

Candidates who ran in the last general election were asked about their: attitudes and beliefs toward Elections Canada and the electoral process; satisfaction with the services and tools provided by Elections Canada; and their perspectives on select policy issues.

Survey of Campus Administrators

Administrators of post-secondary institutions who helped organize Elections Canada polling stations as part of the Vote on Campus initiative were asked about their experiences delivering this program.

Survey of Outreach Stakeholders

Stakeholders who participated in the Inspire Democracy program were asked questions about their experiences, including: activities conducted in the context of their agreement with Elections Canada; reach within target groups; sources of information about the elections; and satisfaction with Elections Canada products, tools and services.

Survey of Third Parties

Entities registered as third parties in the last general election were asked about their views and experiences regarding various aspects of elections and the 43rd general election in particular, including: attitudes toward the electoral process and Elections Canada; registration and reporting requirements; Elections Canada products, tools and services; and policy issues.