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Research, Analyses and Data for the 44th General Election

This webpage includes research and analyses studying the 44th general election held on September 20, 2021. For each general election, Elections Canada conducts public opinion research studies and analyses of administrative data to help us evaluate our performance. We use the findings to make improvements to our services, and the Chief Electoral Officer uses them to make recommendations to Parliament.

Special Reports and Studies

Report on the delivery of voting services in Cat Lake, Poplar Hill and Pikangikum, Ontario, during the 44th general election

Final report

This report is a review of events in three communities in the riding of Kenora, where there were no voting services on election day.


Special Ballot Report – 44th General Election


This report gives a detailed overview of the use of special ballots during the 44th general election. Special ballots are used by electors voting by mail, voting at a local Elections Canada office, incarcerated electors, and some Canadian Forces electors. The report details how the special ballot process works and gives riding-by-riding data on the number of special ballots issued, valid special ballots cast, and special ballots that could not be counted because they were rejected for reasons set out in the Canada Elections Act, including being returned late or not returned at all.



Voter Turnout by Gender and Age

Using administrative data, this study presents turnout results based on the eligible population, tabulated by gender, age group and province and territories.



Estimate of Turnout in Indigenous Communities in the 43rd and 44th General Elections

This document details estimates of turnout in Indigenous communities (First Nations, Inuit, Métis) for the 43rd and 44th general elections. There was no report produced after the 43rd election due to the operational requirements involved in preparing for a general election during the COVID-19 pandemic.


National Electors Study

Methodology report

The National Electors Study consisted of a national longitudinal survey administered to nearly 62,000 eligible Canadian electors, along with a series of post-election focus groups and interviews. The results are presented in two reports: one, on the overall experience of the elector; and the other, on the reach and effectiveness of the Voter Information Campaign.

Turnout and Reasons for Not Voting during the 44th General Election: Results from the Labour Force Survey


For the fourth time following a general election, Elections Canada partnered with Statistics Canada to include questions on voter participation in the Labour Force Survey. Respondents were asked whether or not they voted and their reasons for not voting.

Experiences of Official Language Minority Communities Following the 44th General Election


Elections Canada commissioned its first qualitative study on the experience of electors from official language minority communities (OLMCs). OLMCs are defined as anglophones living in Quebec and francophones living outside of Quebec. The research explored OLMCs' experiences in the 44th general election and includes: an overall assessment of how well electors were served in their preferred official language; an exploration of each step of the voting process; and the identification of any difficulties or barriers faced, particularly those related to being served in one's preferred official language.

Election Officers and Administrators

44th General Election Post-Event Meetings Report


In the spring of 2022, Elections Canada headquarters held regional meetings across Canada. These in-person and virtual meetings were an opportunity to debrief on the 43rd and 44th general elections, and to discuss priorities for planning future elections.

Survey of Election Officers


Election officers who worked at the polls in the 44th general election were asked about their: attitudes toward Elections Canada and its service model; level of preparation and training, especially in the pandemic context; satisfaction with Elections Canada's services and materials; work experience in other jurisdictions; working conditions; and process of recruitment.

Returning Officers' Report of Proceedings Summary


Returning officers who worked in the 44th general election were asked about their experiences, including what worked well and where improvements can be made to their administrative responsibilities.

Survey of Recruitment Staff

Election administrators hired to work as recruitment staff in the 44th general election were asked about their: experience with the recruitment process and tools, experience with training and preparedness, working conditions, and working experience.

Political Participants

Survey of Candidates


Candidates who ran in the 44th general election were asked about their: attitudes toward Elections Canada and the electoral process, including levels of trust; satisfaction with the services and tools provided by Elections Canada; and perspectives on select policy issues.

Survey of Official Agents

Final report

Elections Canada required the services of a public opinion research supplier to conduct a Survey of Official Agents (OAs) following the 44th federal General Election. This survey aimed to assess official agents' views and experiences with the 44th General Election (GE) with regards to the financial obligations of the candidate campaign.


Survey of Outreach Stakeholders

Stakeholders who participated in Elections Canada's Inspire Democracy program to reduce barriers to electoral participation were surveyed about their experiences during the 44th general election. The survey's primary objectives were to assess: activities conducted in the context of stakeholder agreements with Elections Canada; reach within target groups; sources of information about the election; and satisfaction with Elections Canada products, tools and services.