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Report on the 2018 By-elections

1. The 2018 By-elections

This section provides a description of activities related to the federal by-elections in 2018.

1.1 Launching the By-elections

Issue of the writs

By-elections were held in June and December of 2018 to replace members of Parliament in two electoral districts.

By-election date Electoral district Reason for issue of writ Writ issue date
June 18, 2018 Chicoutimi–Le Fjord Resignation of the Hon. Denis Lemieux (Liberal) May 13, 2018
December 3, 2018 Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes Death of the Hon. Gordon Brown (Conservative) October 28, 2018

Opening local Elections Canada offices; hiring and training election workers

Shortly after the writs were issued for the 2018 by-elections, Elections Canada opened one local and one satellite office in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord and one local office and one satellite office in Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes.

Returning officers hired 560 and 672 election workers in the electoral districts of Chicoutimi–Le Fjord and Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, respectively. Most of the election workers applied through the Elections Canada website. In addition to the website, returning officers use various recruitment options, including posting on job boards on local university and college campuses, and reaching out to ethnocultural organizations, Indigenous Friendship Centres, seniors' organizations and other groups.

Please see Table 1 in Appendix 2 for the list and number of positions occupied for the 2018 by-elections.

Elections Canada provided a wide range of training materials for staff in the two electoral districts, including video presentations, manuals and online resources.

Poll worker training programs have been refined with each by-election since the 2015 general election. The programs now employ a more hands-on approach, which gives poll workers a chance to practice their key job functions before voting day. While the content of the training materials remained mostly the same, these by-elections presented an opportunity to work more closely with training officers to improve the training program delivery. The lessons learned from this experience will contribute to a more efficient and effective training program for poll workers for the 2019 general election.

Working with political entities

Candidates and registered political parties

There were 15 registered political parties eligible to field candidates for the 2018 by-elections. Please see Appendix 1 for the list of these political parties.

As stipulated in the CEA, prospective candidates had to file their nomination papers by 2:00 p.m. on the 21st day before election day.

Six candidates ran in the riding of Chicoutimi–Le Fjord, including one candidate who ran as an independent. Five candidates ran in Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, including the same independent candidate who ran in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord. Table 2 in Appendix 2 lists the confirmed candidates and their party affiliation at the close of nominations for each electoral district.

Soon after the close of nominations, returning officers held meetings with confirmed candidates and their representatives on their obligations and responsibilities under the CEA. The returning officers also made several information tools available, including handbooks, tutorials, multimedia kits and customized software for filing returns.

Election expenses limits

At their meetings with the candidates, returning officers shared material on political financing rules and the expenditure limits that apply to their electoral district. The final election expenses limits are based on the number of names on the preliminary lists of electors or on the revised lists of electors, whichever is greater, and are established in accordance with the CEA. The CEA also places limits on advertising expenses by registered third parties, although there were none registered for these by-elections, which is typical of by-elections. Table 3 in Appendix 2 shows the election expenses limits for candidates and political parties for each electoral district and the average for each day of by-elections.

Information campaign for electors

Objectives of the campaign

In the run-up to the by-elections, Elections Canada used our "Ready to Vote" information campaign, the same one used in the 2015 general election. The campaign is designed to inform Canadians about the electoral process, the voter registration procedures and the accepted forms of identification they need to present at the polling station. Communications tools used in the 2018 by-elections included a paid media campaign including radio, newspapers and digital; signage; several webpages on; electronic and print information products; direct mail; and outreach to specific groups of electors. The campaign also included non-traditional advertising channels, such as Tims TV and social media, including Facebook, YouTube and Instagram, plus organic social media messages from Elections Canada's corporate accounts.

These communications efforts were synchronized to the various phases of the by-election calendar: voter registration, mailing voter information cards, voting at advance polls and voting on election day.

Social media

During both by-elections, Elections Canada used social media to share information and digital products about registration and voting. Elections Canada posted messages on our Instagram account and used our YouTube channel to share electoral district–specific informational videos. The Elections Canada Twitter and Facebook accounts were also used to respond to questions from the public.

During the Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes by-election period, Elections Canada piloted a behind-the-scenes social media campaign. This pilot tested the performance of creative photos and short videos that showcased the operations of the electoral process and running an election. These messages were issued on Elections Canada's Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and LinkedIn pages.

Overall, the multimedia campaign delivered notable results, compared to our standard by-election messaging. On average there was a 57 percent increase in interactions with behind-the-scenes messaging on Facebook and a 40 percent increase on Twitter. These results will inform future initiatives.


As in past elections, the Elections Canada website prominently featured two online services to help electors find the information they needed to be ready to vote. Electors could enter their postal code into the Voter Information Service to learn where and when they could vote and about the accessibility of their polling place. They could also use the Online Voter Registration Service to register or check if they were registered. The website also provided information about voter eligibility and identification requirements for voting. All told, 31,714 people visited the website during the by-election periods: 20,076 people during the Chicoutimi–Le Fjord by-election and 11,638 during the Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes by-election.

Live election results were published on the website as ballots were counted. On election night for Chicoutimi–Le Fjord, there were 18,576 visits to the website to view the by-election results and 20,135 visits the next day. For Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, there were 5,475 visits to the website to view the by-election results and 4,321 visits the next day.

Enquiries from electors

Electors could check or update their registration status online and learn about the location of their polling place, the voting procedures and other topics directly at the local Elections Canada offices or by contacting the national Elections Canada office via the toll-free numbers or by email. Agents at the Public Enquiries Unit at Elections Canada's headquarters responded to 297 enquiries about the by-election in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord, while local and satellite offices handled 752 calls. For Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, the Public Enquiries Unit responded to 209 enquiries, while the local office received 2,184 calls. The volume was consistent with previous by-elections.

Direct mail

Elections Canada mailed 65,418 and 79,336 voter information cards (VICs) to electors whose names appeared on the preliminary lists of electors in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord and Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, respectively. The VIC tells electors when and where they can vote at advance polls and on election day, describes other voting options, gives them basic information on the accessibility of their polling place and points them to our website for more detailed accessibility information.

Shortly before advance polls, we also sent all households in each electoral district a reminder brochure with information about voter eligibility, registration, identification requirements and ways to vote. The brochure also prompted electors to contact Elections Canada if they did not receive a VIC. A total of 39,625 and 41,646 reminder brochures were sent out for the 2018 by-elections to households in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord and Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, respectively.

Community relations and outreach

Returning officers determine whether a community relations officerfootnote 1 (CRO) is required to conduct outreach activities for a specific target group based on the demographics and needs in their electoral district. In Chicoutimi–Le Fjord, two CROs were appointed, one for seniors and one for youth. In Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, one CRO was appointed to liaise with electors with disabilities. The CROs set up kiosks, made presentations, hosted discussion groups, distributed information products, and liaised with electors in these target groups and contacts in organizations or facilities providing services to these groups.

Media Relations

Media Relations handled 12 media requests regarding the Chicoutimi–Le Fjord by-election, and made two proactive calls to media on the topic of advance polls. There were four media requests during the Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes by-election, and spokespeople did four proactive interviews with local media outlets. There were 12 news releases issued for each by-election.

Based on requests from poll workers in the past, a new Media at the Polls handout was created to alleviate the burden on central poll supervisors (CPSs) by clearly explaining the rules to media outlets and shifting the task of handling questions and complaints to Elections Canada's Media Relations staff at headquarters.

For the Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands–Rideau Lakes by-election, the handout was used, but Media Relations did not receive any requests from media to visit a polling place or any feedback from poll workers, CPSs or the returning officers. Therefore, the handout will continue as a pilot project for the 2019 by-elections to refine its use in the next general election, and Media Relations will be more proactive in soliciting feedback.

1.2 Voter Registration Services

The National Register of Electors

Elections Canada maintains the National Register of Electors (the Register), a database of Canadians who have established their eligibility to vote in federal elections. The Register is regularly updated between and during elections, using administrative data received through agreements with federal, provincial and territorial agencies. Specifically, agreements are held with the Canada Revenue Agency; Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada; most provincial/territorial agencies responsible for driver licensing and vital statistics; and provincial/territorial electoral management bodies.

When an election is called, the agency uses data from the Register to produce the preliminary lists of electors, which are provided to registered political parties and to the returning officers, who provide them to the local candidates as required in the CEA. The preliminary lists are also used to produce the VICs.

Coverage, currency and accuracy of the Register

The quality of the Register is key to ensuring that all electors receive a VIC. It is also important to political parties and candidates who wish to engage with electors. Quality is a function of three factors: coverage, currency and accuracy.

Coverage is the proportion of eligible electors who are registered to vote. Historically, national coverage has varied between 91 and 94 percent. In the 2018 by-elections, the coverage of the preliminary lists was 95.5 percent in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord and 93.2 percent in Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes.

Currency is the proportion of eligible electors who are registered at their current address. Historically, the national currency has varied between 81 and 86 percent. In the 2018 by-elections, the currency of the preliminary lists was 92.8 percent in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord and 90.9 percent in Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes.

Accuracy is the proportion of registered electors who are listed at their current address. These electors are correctly registered and can vote without taking extra steps. Accuracy is calculated by dividing the currency estimates by the coverage estimates. Historically, national accuracy has varied between 88 and 92 percent. In the 2018 by-elections, the accuracy of the preliminary lists was 97.2 percent in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord and 97.5 percent in Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, which is higher, but comparable to the variations across these electoral districts in the 2015 general election.

Many factors may affect the quality of lists, including demographic changes and the timely availability of data. The occurrence of these factors may vary by region. However, revision activities carried out by returning officers and through online registration in the weeks prior to election day aim to improve the quality of lists.

Table 4 in Appendix 2 shows the coverage, currency and accuracy of the preliminary lists for each by-election.

Revision period

The revision period began on Day 33 (three days after the by-elections were called) and ended at 6:00 p.m. on the 6th day before election day.

During the revision period, the local Elections Canada offices in each electoral district offer registration services in person and over the phone. Also, service agents are sent out to update address information for electors living on First Nations reserves, in long-term care facilities, student residences, high mobility or new residential neighbourhoods. Throughout the 2018 by-elections, electors could also go online to check whether they were registered, update their address or complete their registration.

Table 5 in Appendix 2 provides details on changes made to the lists of electors during the revision periods for the two electoral districts involved in the 2018 by-elections.

1.3 Voting Services

Electors can cast their ballot at their assigned advance polls during one of the four days designated, at their assigned ordinary poll on election day, or under the special voting rules at their local Elections Canada office or by mail. Other voting methods are also available for residents of long-term care facilities and seniors' residences, electors confined to their homes, members of Canadian Forces, and incarcerated electors.

Polling places

For the by-election in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord, the returning officer established 13 polling stations at 13 polling places for advance polls, and 170 polling stations at 37 polling places on election day. A total of 3 mobile polling stations visited 6 establishments.

For the 2018 by-elections in Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, returning officers established 19 polling stations at 15 polling places for advance polls, and 211 polling stations at 54 polling places on election day. A total of 6 mobile polling stations visited 16 establishments.

Table 6 in Appendix 2 provides a detailed breakdown of the number of polling stations and polling places for each electoral district.

Elections Canada and our Advisory Group for Disability Issues established a checklist of 37 criteria (increased from 35 since 2015), 15 of which are mandatory, in order for a polling place to be considered accessible. The Canadian Standards Association's Accessible Design for the Built Environment was used as a baseline to establish both the mandatory and non-mandatory criteria. Non-mandatory criteria include available parking, public transit access, and door handle grip. The VIC informs electors of their polling place's level of accessibility and points them to the Elections Canada's website for more detailed information on the accessibility of their polling place.

Of the 119 polling places in the 2018 by-elections, all met Elections Canada's mandatory accessibility criteria.


Voting at assigned election day and advance polls

In Chicoutimi–Le Fjord, the majority of voters (18,843 out of 24,204, or 77.9 percent) chose to cast their ballots at a polling station on election day. A further 5,018, or 20.7 percent, voted at advance polls. These turnout numbers are in line with election day and advance poll day results from the last general election and confirm a strong trend of increasing numbers of electors voting in advance of election day.

In Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, the vast majority of voters (21,889 out of 29,327, or 74.6 percent) chose to cast their ballots at a polling station on election day. A further 6,477, or 22.1 percent, voted at advance polls. These turnout numbers are in line with election day and advance poll day results from the last general election and confirm a strong trend of increasing numbers of electors voting in advance of election day.

Pilot project: Voting process optimization

A newly optimized paper-based voting process was piloted in the 2018 Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes by-election to reduce and simplify processes for faster and smoother service for voters.

The objectives of the new process are to:

  • improve and simplify the voting process;
  • align advance and election day polling procedures as much as possible; and
  • simplify procedures while reducing both the number of exceptions and products at the polls.

The new process also aimed to improve working conditions for poll workers, which will improve poll worker training, compliance with the legislation, integrity of the process and service for electors.

During the by-election, observers at Elections Canada headquarters reported that poll workers seemed to appreciate the refinements, and electors seemed to appreciate the more fluid processing of voters, especially during advance polls. This new process also reduced our environmental footprint by decreasing the amount of paper required to capture the same information.

Following the by-election, an audit of the Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes poll bags revealed that the new optimized products were effectively used and largely completed properly by poll workers. The audit team did, however, notice some common errors, such as date formats and data entry. Therefore, to improve compliance, we have refined some procedures and products that will be tested during the 2019 Simulation exercise in preparation for the general election. 

Voting by mail or at a local Elections Canada office

Under the Special Voting Rules (SVR) provisions of the CEA, electors can vote by mail or at any local Elections Canada office. Canadians temporarily outside their electoral district or living abroad can apply online for a special ballot voting kit to be mailed to them.

For every by-election, Elections Canada communicates with our partners at the Department of National Defence, Correctional Service Canada and Global Affairs Canada to disseminate information and registration materials to those electors whose address of ordinary residence is in the electoral district.

Following the successful conduct of a pilot project in 2017, a new one-stop service model was formally implemented in the 2018 by-elections in the local Elections Canada offices of Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes. The new model streamlines in person services to electors, who are served by service agents who provide both revision and special ballot voting services.

In the 2018 by-election in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord, 343 electors voted by special ballot. This represents 1.4 percent of electors who voted, compared to 3.4 percent in the last general election. In the 2018 by-elections in Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, 961 electors voted by special ballot. This represents 3.3 percent of electors who voted, compared to 3.2 percent in the last general election.

Table 7 in Appendix 2 provides a breakdown of voting by category for each electoral district. Table 8 provides a detailed breakdown of special ballot voting.

Overall voter turnout

For the 2018 by-elections, overall turnout was 36.5 and 36.0 percent of registered electors in Chicoutimi–Le Fjord and Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes, respectively.

Table 9 in Appendix 2 compares these turnout rates to those in the 2015 general election for each electoral district. Compared to other electoral districts where by-elections have been held since the 42nd general election, the drop in participation in both Chicoutimi–Le Fjord and Leeds-Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes was as expected—roughly 50 percent of the participation rate in a general election. Historically, overall voter turnout numbers decrease during by-elections.

Pilot project: Ballot Modernization

We piloted the production and use of a new ballot design in these by-elections. The new design was developed in consultation with political parties and stakeholder groups, such as disability communities, and focus-tested with a broad cross-section of Canadians.

The larger ballot features larger font sizes and displays candidates' surnames in upper-case letters to make the information more accessible to people with disabilities. As well, we have introduced a new method of providing ballot files to printing companies. Rather than handling pre-printed paper and using masking techniques, printers can now print the supplied files directly onto ballot paper. In addition, the ballot booklets now contain 50 ballots, up from 25, thereby reducing the labour required during assembly.

We received no feedback from electors about the new ballot design. We will continue to monitor this project in the 2019 by-elections.

Pilot projects enabled by IT Services

We also piloted new administrative and financial procedures with new hardware and software for election workers in the field and for staff at headquarters. We deployed new field hardware designed for the 43rd general election, such as servers, desktops and laptops. This deployment was a unique opportunity for field staff to test the equipment and refine the manuals for the next general election.

We also launched new functionalities and training for the Recruitment Management System that helps returning officers hire staff and helps recruitment officers create and manage training sessions. The pilot allowed us to identify improvements to the system, as well as to training and change management measures. These changes will be tested prior to the general election.


Under the CEA, the Chief Electoral Officer may, for the sole purpose of enabling electors to exercise their right to vote or enabling the counting of votes, adapt the Act under subsection 17(1) to address an emergency, an unusual or unforeseen circumstance, or an error. Adaptations only apply during an election period or within 30 days after election day.

During the 2018 by-elections, there were no adaptations.

1.4 Concluding the By-elections

Election results

The candidates elected in each electoral district in the 2018 by-elections were:

  • June 18, 2018, by-election:
    • Chicoutimi–Le Fjord: Richard Martel, Conservative Party of Canada
  • December 3, 2018, by-election:
    • Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes: Michael Barrett, Conservative Party of Canada
House of Commons seat distribution at the call of and after the 2018 by-elections
Party June 18, 2018, by-election December 3, 2018, by-election
At call of After At call of After
Liberal Party of Canada 183 183 182 181
Conservative Party of Canada 96 97 96 96
New Democratic Party 43 43 41 41
Bloc Québécois 10 10 10 10
Green Party of Canada 1 1 1 1
People's Party of Canada 0 0 1 1
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation 1 1 1 1
Independent 2 2 2 4
Vacant 2 1 4 3

Validation of results and return of writs

Returning officers in each electoral district validate the results of a by-election as soon as possible after voting day. Once they determine that all ballots have been fairly and accurately counted, they issue a certificate indicating the number of votes cast for each candidate.

A returning officer must hold the writ for six days after the validation of the results to allow time for candidates and electors to request a recount. If there is no recount, the returning officer declares the candidate who received the most votes elected and returns the writ to the Chief Electoral Officer.

There were no recounts initiated in either of the 2018 by-elections.

Table 10 in Appendix 2 lists the number of valid votes obtained by each candidate in each electoral district.

The official voting results were published on Elections Canada's website at > Resource Centre > Reports > Elections Canada's Official Reports > Official Voting Results.

Table 11 in Appendix 2 shows the dates on which results were validated and writs were returned for each electoral district.


During and after general elections or by-elections, Elections Canada receives, reviews and responds to complaints from electors. Complaints may relate to a wide range of issues, from long lines, to campaign financing irregularities, to accessibility problems in polling places.footnote 2 Electors can register complaints by telephone, mail or email, or through a special form available on They also have the option of lodging a complaint at a local Elections Canada office or at their polling place.

Elections Canada received 40 complaints related to the 2018 by-elections:

  • 3 complaints related to the agency's central services, such as VICs, lists of electors and voting by special ballot;
  • 20 complaints related to polling place accessibility, of which 5 issues related to parking; 2 issues related to signage; 1 issue related to the location of the voting room; 2 issues related to exterior pathways; 1 issue related to a level access entrance; 3 issues related to exterior and interior building lighting and protruding objects; and 6 issues related to hallways, doors and door thresholds;
  • 16 complaints related to services at the polls; and
  • 1 complaint related to activities of political parties, such as campaigning and spending.

The volume and content of complaints for the 2018 by-elections were consistent with previous by-elections.

Elections Canada follows up on all complaints received. Complaints impacting the right to vote are given the highest priority. Feedback received through complaints is analyzed and used to improve our services. Complaints that are related to a potential offence under the CEA are referred to the Commissioner of Canada Elections for further investigation. For the 2018 by-elections, no complaints were referred to the Commissioner of Canada Elections. For a summary of complaints for each electoral district, see Table 12 in Appendix 2.

Cost of the by-elections

As of January 1, 2019, the total estimated cost for the two by-elections is $2.1M, including $235,000 projected to be paid to candidates for the partial reimbursement of their election expenses and the subsidies to candidates' auditors. The cost per registered elector is estimated at $14.36.

The following table provides the cost breakdown of the by-elections.

Estimated cost of the 2018 by-electionsfootnote 3
Activity Estimated costs ($ thousands)
June 18
December 3
Conducting the by-election – Includes expenses related to fees and allowances to returning officers and election staff, printing ballots and lists of electors, leasing local offices and polling places, shipping election material, running communications campaigns, hiring temporary staff and deploying IT infrastructure and telecommunications $883 $1,001 $1,884
Reimbursing election expenses to candidates and subsidies to candidates' auditors $108 $127 $235
Total estimated cost $991 $1,128 $2,119

* Chicoutimi–Le Fjord

** Leeds–Grenville–Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes

Poll worker compliance with voting day procedures

The Canada Elections Act (Act) requires Elections Canada to arrange for an independent audit of the performance of poll workers at each general election and by-election.

In 2015, following a competitive procurement process, the Chief Electoral Officer commissioned PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC) to conduct the audits, beginning with the 42nd general election. PwC was tasked to report on whether certain poll workers (deputy returning officers, poll clerks and registration officers) performed the duties and functions imposed on them under specific sections of the Act and to determine the degree to which the established administrative controls, including manuals and training material, supported poll workers in performing their duties.

In 2018, PwC conducted independent audits at the Chicoutimi−Le Fjord and Leeds−Grenville−Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes by-elections. Collectively, 320 electoral interactions from a sample of polling sites across both electoral districts were audited.

PwC's findings concluded that:

  • In both by-elections, election officers properly exercised the powers conferred on them, and properly performed the duties and functions imposed on them under specific sections of the Act on all days of advance polling and on election day. This applied to the vast majority of electors who arrived at the polls already registered and with documentary proof of identity and address, and to the minority of electors who required special procedures to vote, such as registering at the polls or correcting their electoral information. While some inconsistencies were noted in the completion of procedures for both groups of electors, PwC noted that that these errors were not pervasive.
  • A single major finding was discovered, at the Chicoutimi−Le Fjord by-election, where in an isolated incident, a single poll clerk did not strike off the names of electors who had voted from the List of Electors but did check off the box indicating that they had voted.
  • PwC also examined Elections Canada's training program for election officers, in particular during the Leeds−Grenville−Thousand Islands and Rideau Lakes by-election, for which Elections Canada had introduced changes to the forms, certificates and record-keeping instructions used during the voting process, and had revised the training program accordingly. While PwC noted some suggestions for improving the training program, particularly to reinforce the proper handling of special procedures, they concluded that overall, Elections Canada's training program is comprehensive and effective for providing prescriptive guidance and support to the temporary workforce hired to work at the by-elections.

These audit findings are in line with those reported in the Retrospective Report on the 42nd General Election of October 19, 2015.

Survey of Electors

Additional information on the 2018 by-elections can be found in the Survey of Electors commissioned following each election. The findings are available on our website at Home > Resource Centre > Research > Post-election Evaluations.

Footnote 1 Community relations officers work with local organizations to remove barriers to registration and voting in communities. These officers provide information on when, where and ways to register and vote, as well as on the tools and services available to voters. For more information, please visit our website Resource Centre > Research > Post-election Evaluations > 2011 General Election > Local Outreach in the 41st General Election.

Footnote 2 The agency defines a complaint as an expression of dissatisfaction with the products or services provided by Elections Canada, the way in which services were provided to Elections Canada, or the inappropriate conduct of a person or group in the electoral process.

Footnote 3 Estimated cost as at January 1, 2019. Actual cost will not be known until Elections Canada has received and processed all outstanding invoices for goods and services, and received and audited all candidates' election expenses reports.