FAQs on Elections
Below are frequently asked questions about federal elections in Canada.
- When are campaign signs allowed to be displayed?
- Are there any rules about the content of campaign signs?
- My sign was destroyed/removed/stolen. What can I do?
- Are campaign signs allowed in a polling place?
- Are there any exceptions to the rules for political signage in a polling place?
- What are the rules for signs on public property?
- What about signs on private property, such as apartments and condominiums?
- Someone put a sign on my property without my permission. What can I do?
- How do I make a complaint about election signs?
Electoral process and results
- What measures are in place to ensure voting is secret?
- When are the ballots counted?
- How are votes counted and validated?
- Does Elections Canada use automatic ballot-counting machines to count the ballots at federal elections?
- When are final election results available?
- When are poll-by-poll results available?
Election calls and timing
- When are federal elections held in Canada?
- Who calls elections in Canada?
- What was the date of the last general election?
- What is a by-election?
- When are by-elections held? Who calls them?
- Who is eligible to vote in a by-election?
- Is it acceptable to offer voters a ride to a polling station, or repay them for their travel expenses to get to a polling station?
How do I apply to work in federal elections?
Poll worker positions
You can apply online to work in a federal general election, by-election or referendum.
Click on the link above and enter your postal code to find your riding (electoral district), and see the opportunities.
When a federal general election or by-election is called, you can also phone the Elections Canada office in your riding or go there in person to get an application form. You can find the office’s contact information by using our online Voter Information Service.
Returning officers are hired through a competitive process as vacancies occur. There are 338 returning officer positions across Canada. The Returning Officer Employment Corner shows you returning officer vacancies, requirements, rates of pay and how to apply.
Elections Canada's staff is hired through the federal public service recruitment process. All positions are based in the National Capital Region. When an election is called, additional temporary staff is hired to work in offices and warehouses in the National Capital Region.
Full-time students seeking workplace experience at Elections Canada offices in the National Capital Region can apply through the Public Service Commission's Federal Student Work Experience Program.
Elections Canada is only responsible for federal general elections, by-elections and referendums.
If you'd like to work in a provincial or territorial election, please contact your province's or territory's election agency.
If you'd like to work in a city or municipal election, please contact your city or municipality.
When are campaign signs allowed to be displayed?
The Canada Elections Act does not regulate or prohibit displaying campaign signs outside a federal election period. However, provincial or municipal laws may regulate campaign signs placed on public or private property during or between election periods.
Are there any rules about the content of campaign signs?
The Canada Elections Act does not regulate the content of campaign signs. However, all partisan and election advertising messages (including campaign signs) must contain a “tagline” stating who has authorized the message. A candidate's or political party's official agent must authorize candidate signs. If the advertising was placed by a third party, it must include the third party's name, telephone number, and physical or Internet address.
My sign was destroyed/removed/stolen. What can I do?
Elections Canada has no jurisdiction to deal with signs that are destroyed, removed or stolen. You may do the following:
- Notify local police, as destruction of private property is a criminal offence; and/or
- Send a complaint in writing to the Office of the Commissioner of Canada Elections.
Are campaign signs allowed in a polling place?
Elections Canada is committed to creating a neutral area around the polls to help ensure the impartial administration of elections. We limit partisan material only as much as necessary to maintain the neutrality of all polling places. We recognize the importance of balancing this objective with the freedom of expression guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
The Canada Elections Act prohibits posting or displaying any partisan material in polling places (including campaign signs). In practice, what this means is that partisan material cannot be posted or displayed in the room where the vote takes place, in the hallways leading to the room, or in the entrance to the closest door. In many cases where there may be several entrances, or one from the parking lot and another from the sidewalk or bus stop, it also means that partisan material cannot be posted or displayed anywhere in or on the building where voting takes place, or on the property on which the building is located, including the parking lot.
Are there any exceptions to the rules for political signage in a polling place?
In some cases, it may be unreasonable for the prohibition to extend to an entire property. For example, polling stations may be located in university student centres, apartment or condominium buildings, and shopping centres. In those cases, partisan material may be allowed in one part of a building or property, even though a polling station is located in another part. Partisan material may be removed, however, from main pathways used by electors to enter the polling place.
The returning officer and other election officers will use their discretion to determine whether partisan material must be removed from a polling place.
What are the rules for signs on public property?
Section 325 of the Canada Elections Act states that, during an election period, no one may interfere with the transmission of election advertising, such as a campaign sign.
- Government agencies may remove signs that do not respect provincial or municipal laws, after informing the person who authorized the posting of the sign that they plan to remove it.
- If the sign is a safety hazard, government agencies may remove it without informing the person who authorized the posting of the sign.
- Returning officers and other election officers may remove signs from public property where a polling place is located.
If you are not sure whether the sign is on private or public property, check with your municipality or other government agency.
What about signs on private property, such as apartments and condominiums?
Election signs are allowed on private property.
Property owners do not have the right to prevent tenants from putting up election signs on the premises they lease in an apartment building during an election period. Condominium corporations do not have the right to prevent condo owners from putting up election signs on the units they own during an election period.
However, property owners and condominium corporations do have the right to set reasonable conditions on the size and type of sign, and to prohibit signs in common areas, whether indoors or outdoors (see section 322 of the Canada Elections Act). The term "common areas" refers to an area or areas that may be used by all occupants of, and visitors to, a building (e.g. lobby, hallways, stairwells). It does not apply to areas that are part of the premises of the unit and not accessible to other building residents, such as balconies.
Someone put a sign on my property without my permission. What can I do?
The Canada Elections Act does not affect the right of private residential property owners to control which people enter their property, or anything placed on it. If a sign has been placed on your private residential property without your permission, the Canada Elections Act does not prevent you from removing it. You may wish to contact the candidate or registered party whose sign it is to tell them you did not request the sign and to ask them to remove it.
If you are not sure whether the sign is on private or public property, check with the municipality or other government agency.
How do I make a complaint about election signs?
To make a complaint or allegation of wrongdoing about election signs displayed during a federal election, please write to the Office of the Commissioner of Canada Elections.
Electoral process and results
What measures are in place to ensure voting is secret?
Several strict measures ensure the secrecy of the vote.
Ballots are printed on special paper. The number of sheets sent to printers and returned by them is closely controlled.
The ballot paper is divided into three detachable parts:
- the ballot itself;
- the counterfoil;
- the stub, which stays attached to the ballot book.
A matching serial number is printed on the stub and counterfoil. The number is a strict temporary control mechanism used to ensure that the ballot given to the voter and back to the deputy returning officer is the same. The serial number does not appear on the ballot and is not registered with the voter's name.
Procedures at the polling station
Once the electors presented themselves to the deputy returning officer, the poll clerk checks to ensure that their names appear on the voters list for the assigned poll. Once a person is confirmed to be on the list and has proven his or her identity and address, the deputy returning officer removes an initialled and pre-folded ballot from the book – with its counterfoil still attached. The elector is then instructed to go behind the voting screen, mark the ballot in secret and return it, folded, to the same deputy returning officer.
The deputy returning officer takes each ballot that is returned, without unfolding it, and checks that it is the same ballot that was given to the voter. The serial number on the counterfoil must match the serial number on the stub remaining in the book.
The deputy returning officer removes and discards the counterfoil and returns the still-folded ballot to the voter. The voter places the ballot in the ballot box, or asks the deputy returning officer to do so.
Once a person has voted, the poll clerk places a check mark in a column next to that voter's name on the list, indicating that the person has voted, and crosses the voter's name off the list.
Section 163 of the Canada Elections Act states that "the vote is secret." To further protect the secrecy of the vote, subsection 164(1) of the Act states that "[e]very candidate, election officer or representative of a candidate present at a polling station or at the counting of the votes shall maintain the secrecy of the vote." Contravening this provision is an offence under the Act.
Elections Canada does not collect or hold data on how any voter has voted.
When are the ballots counted?
Ballots cast on election day are counted when the polls close. Since voting takes place at different times across the country, results from the Eastern provinces will be available earlier than those in the West. Elections Canada begins publishing live preliminary results shortly after 7:00 p.m. (Eastern Time) on our website.
How are votes counted and validated?
The deputy returning officer records the number of votes received by each candidate and the number of rejected ballots on a Statement of the Vote. The ballots and other election documents are then sealed in the ballot box and delivered to the returning officer.
Every returning officer validates the results by adding the totals given on each Statement of the Vote. The returning officer then delivers a certificate announcing the validated results to the candidates. In the absence of an application for a judicial recount, on the seventh day after the validation, he or she writes the name of the candidate who has received the most votes on the election writ, signs the writ and returns it to the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada.
A judicial recount occurs automatically if the two leading candidates are separated by less than one one-thousandth of the total votes cast in the riding or if they receive the same number of votes after the validation. As well, any elector may apply within four days of the validation of the results for a judge to carry out a judicial recount, with a $250 deposit and an affidavit that the count was improperly carried out, ballot papers were improperly rejected or the returning officer carried out the validation improperly.
In the very rare cases where the two leading candidates still have the same number of votes after the recount, a by-election is held for that riding.
As soon as the returning officer receives the judge's certificate stating the results of the judicial recount, and if there is no tie vote, he or she writes the name of the winning candidate on the election writ and returns the writ to the Chief Electoral Officer.
For more information, see Results, Validation, Recounts, and Contested Elections: What Happens After Voting in a Federal Election.
Does Elections Canada use automatic ballot-counting machines to count the ballots at federal elections?
No, Elections Canada does not use automatic ballot-counting machines to count the ballots.
Elections Canada has trained and paid election workers who count the ballots by hand. Election workers follow the strict counting procedures set out in the Canada Elections Act, the law that governs federal elections.
While Elections Canada does not use automatic ballot-counting machines, they are used successfully and securely in some other jurisdictions in Canada and around the world. Provincial, territorial and municipal governments determine their own election laws and procedures, as do political parties when it comes to their leadership contests. Election administrators determine whether or not to use technology to support their electoral process based on their context and needs.
When are final election results available?
The Canada Elections Act requires the official results from a federal general election to be published without delay. Between the announcement of preliminary results on election night and the publication of official voting results, the balloting results go through a number of verification stages. Results are published as they become available.
The specific timetable for the publication of results as set out in the Act is as follows:
- On election night, once the polls in a riding are closed, preliminary results are announced and published on Elections Canada's website as they become available. These preliminary results are tabulated from the counts done at each polling station as they come in.
- Within a few days of those published results, returning officers are required to validate the counts submitted from the individual polls. These validated results are posted on the website as they become available. Validations are usually completed the same day that they start. The Act allows validations to be delayed up to three weeks, if necessary, to allow all ballot boxes to be delivered to the returning officer.
- Once a validation is completed, the Act requires the returning officer to wait seven days to formally declare the elected winner. This is to provide an opportunity for a judicial recount to be held where required. An application for a judicial recount must be made to the court within four days of the returning officer's validation of results. The recount itself must start within four days of the judge agreeing to hear the application. Once started, a recount usually takes between one and two days. If a recount is held, the results of that recount are made public and published on the Elections Canada website on its completion.
- On the seventh day following the validation of results (or, if a judicial recount was held, on its completion), the returning officer declares the winner and returns the writ of election to the Chief Electoral Officer.
- Elections Canada then collects and publishes the official voting results without delay, as specified by section 533 of the Canada Elections Act. When Elections Canada prepares the official voting results, no corrections or changes are made to the results that have been reached either by a returning officer during the validation or by a judge on a judicial recount. Elections Canada merely collects, collates and reports those results.
The official voting results also report the final number of voters on the list for each polling station. In order to do this, Elections Canada must data-capture the revisions made to the voters lists during the election, including the information of voters who registered at the polls on election day.
When are poll-by-poll results available?
To protect the secrecy of the vote, Elections Canada does not release any preliminary poll-by-poll results on election night. Instead, we summarize the results for five polls at a time in each riding. These summaries include votes cast by special ballot and at advance polls. Candidates' representatives receive a copy of the Statement of the Vote on election night at each poll they attend.
Poll-by-poll results are available in hard copy to candidates and media after validation, which takes place within seven days after election day in most ridings. Media can submit their request for these results by contacting the local returning officer before election day.
In a few cases, the results from more than one poll may be reported together where this is necessary to protect the secrecy of the vote in each poll.
Without delay after a general election, a report setting out, by polling division, the number of votes cast for each candidate, the number of rejected ballots and the number of names on the final voters list must be published. In the case of a by-election, the same report must be published within 90 days after the return of the writ. This report is entitled Official Voting Results.
Election calls and timing
When are federal elections held in Canada?
Since May 2007, the Canada Elections Act provides for a general election to be held on a fixed date: the third Monday of October in the fourth calendar year following the previous general election. As the last election took place on September 20, 2021, the next fixed election date is October 20, 2025.
That said, the Canada Elections Act does not prevent a general election from being called at another date.
General elections are called when, on the advice of the Prime Minister, the Governor General dissolves Parliament. The Governor in Council (the Governor General, acting on the advice of Cabinet) sets the date of the election.
Section 57 of the Canada Elections Act specifies that the election period must last a minimum of 37 days and a maximum of 51 days.
Who calls elections in Canada?
Federal general elections are called as a result of a proclamation by the Governor General, acting on the advice of the Prime Minister.
General elections are called when, on the advice of the Prime Minister, the Governor General dissolves Parliament. The Governor in Council (the Governor General, acting on the advice of Cabinet) sets the date of the election. In the case of a fixed-date election, the Chief Electoral Officer may recommend an alternate day (the next Tuesday or Monday) if the date set for the election is not suitable.
What was the date of the last general election?
The last general election was held on September 20, 2021. It was Canada's 44th general election.
What is a by-election?
A by-election is a federal election that takes place in just one riding. By-elections are held after the sitting member of Parliament (MP) retires, steps down or passes away while in office. Sometimes two or more by-elections are held on the same day, in different ridings.
When are by-elections held? Who calls them?
By-elections are held when seats in the House of Commons become vacant – for example, when an MP resigns. When a seat in the House of Commons officially becomes vacant, the Speaker of the House must inform the Chief Electoral Officer immediately.
The date of the by-election is determined by the Governor in Council (the Governor General, acting on the advice of Cabinet). The by-election must be called between the 11th day and the 180th day after the receipt by the Chief Electoral Officer of the document sent by the Speaker of the House advising of the vacancy. The Canada Elections Act specifies that the election period must last a minimum of 37 days and a maximum of 51 days. By-elections will not be held for any seat made vacant up to nine months before a fixed-date general election.
Find out if there are vacant seats in the House of Commons for which a by-election will be or has been called.
Who is eligible to vote in a by-election?
To be allowed to vote in a riding's by-election, you must be eligible to vote and meet the following two conditions:
- be living in that riding at the beginning of the revision period (usually 33 days before election day), and
- still be living in that riding on election day.
If you're not sure whether you meet these residency requirements, contact Elections Canada. Under election law, it's illegal to vote if you do not meet the requirements.
At your polling station, you'll be asked to prove your identity and address.
Is it acceptable to offer electors a ride to a polling station, or repay them for their travel expenses to get to a polling station?
Sometimes candidates or political parties offer electors rides to polling stations.
It is acceptable to offer a ride or to pay travel expenses if:
- it is offered to help someone, not to influence them
- it is offered with no strings attached (e.g. it is not given on the condition that the person vote in a particular way)
- the money offered covers the actual (or reasonably estimated) cost of travel, and nothing more
Sometimes, rides or travel expenses are offered selectively, to certain electors only—for example, only to electors who are known to support a particular political party. This is still acceptable, as long as it follows the three points listed above.
If the ride or travel expense repayment is offered to influence an elector, it is considered a bribe. It is illegal to offer or to accept such bribes.
The Canada Elections Act does not have a specific section on rides and travel expenses, so what follows is based on a section of the Act that deals with bribes in general and on case law.
Section 481 of the Canada Elections Act states that it is an offence during an election for someone to offer a bribe to influence an elector to vote or not to vote, or to vote or refrain from voting for a particular candidate. Similarly, electors who, during an election period, agree to accept a bribe in those circumstances commit an offence under the Act.
In this context, whether it is okay to provide a ride to a polling station or to reimburse electors for their expenses to get to a polling station depends on how the ride and travel expenses are offered.
It is a question of fact and evidence if the provision of a ride or the payment of travel expenses was intended to influence the person to vote, or to vote in a particular way, or whether the ride, payment or provision was motivated by some other reason. For example, offering a group of individuals a day's festive outing which is conditional on first stopping at the polls may be a prohibited act where the outing is arranged in order to influence the electors to go to the polls.
Note that returning officers and their staff do not arrange electors' transportation to polling stations.